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Bürglin, Thomas R.
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Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Hench, J., Henriksson, J., Abou-Zied, A. M., Lüppert, M., Dethlefsen, J., Mukherjee, K., . . . Bürglin, T. R. (2015). The Homeobox Genes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Insights into Their Spatio-Temporal Expression Dynamics during Embryogenesis. PLoS ONE, 10(5), Article ID e0126947.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Homeobox Genes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Insights into Their Spatio-Temporal Expression Dynamics during Embryogenesis
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126947Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Homeobox genes play crucial roles for the development of multicellular eukaryotes. We have generated a revised list of all homeobox genes for Caenorhabditis elegans and provide a nomenclature for the previously unnamed ones. We show that, out of 103 homeobox genes, 70 are co-orthologous to human homeobox genes. 14 are highly divergent, lacking an obvious ortholog even in other Caenorhabditis species. One of these homeobox genes encodes 12 homeodomains, while three other highly divergent homeobox genes encode a novel type of double homeodomain, termed HOCHOB. To understand how transcription factors regulate cell fate during development, precise spatio-temporal expression data need to be obtained. Using a new imaging framework that we developed, Endrov, we have generated spatio-temporal expression profiles during embryogenesis of over 60 homeobox genes, as well as a number of other developmental control genes using GFP reporters. We used dynamic feedback during recording to automatically adjust the camera exposure time in order to increase the dynamic range beyond the limitations of the camera. We have applied the new framework to examine homeobox gene expression patterns and provide an analysis of these patterns. The methods we developed to analyze and quantify expression data are not only suitable for C. elegans, but can be applied to other model systems or even to tissue culture systems.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-27668 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0126947 (DOI)000355319400026 ()26024448 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84932606751 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2010-5634Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Wenner-Gren Foundations
Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, J., Hench, J., Tong, Y. G., Johansson, A., Johansson, D. & Bürglin, T. R. (2013). Endrov: an integrated platform for image analysis. Nature Methods, 10(6), 454-456
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endrov: an integrated platform for image analysis
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2013 (English)In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 454-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-19422 (URN)10.1038/nmeth.2478 (DOI)000319668700005 ()2-s2.0-84880784676 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-07-11 Created: 2013-07-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kagoshima, H., Cassata, G., Tong, Y. G., Pujol, N., Niklaus, G. & Bürglin, T. R. (2013). The LIM homeobox gene ceh-14 is required for phasmid function and neurite outgrowth. Developmental Biology, 380(2), 314-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The LIM homeobox gene ceh-14 is required for phasmid function and neurite outgrowth
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2013 (English)In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 380, no 2, p. 314-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transcription factors play key roles in cell fate specification and cell differentiation. Previously, we showed that the LIM homeodomain factor CEH-14 is expressed in the AFD neurons where it is required for thermotaxis behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that ceh-14 is expressed in the phasmid sensory neurons, PHA and PHB, a number of neurons in the tail, i.e., PHC, DVC, PVC, PVN, PVQ PVT, PVW and PVR, as well as the touch neurons. Analysis of the promoter region shows that important regulatory elements for the expression in most neurons reside from -4 kb to -1.65 kb upstream of the start codon. Further, within the first introns are elements for expression in the hypodermis. Phylogenetic footprinting revealed numerous conserved motifs in these regions. In addition to the existing deletion mutation ceh-14(ch3), we isolated a new allele, ceh-14(ch2), in which only one LIM domain is disrupted. The latter mutant allele is partially defective for thermosensation. Analysis of both mutant alleles showed that they are defective in phasmid dye-filling. However, the cell body, dendritic outgrowth and ciliated endings of PHA and PHB appear normal, indicating that ceh-14 is not required for growth. The loss of a LIM domain in the ceh-14(ch2) allele causes a partial loss-of-function phenotype. Examination of the neurites of ALA and tail neurons using a ceh-14::GFP reporter shows abnormal axonal outgrowth and pathfinding.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-19637 (URN)10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.04.009 (DOI)000322297900015 ()23608457 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84879881843 (Scopus ID)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Tong, Y.-G. & Bürglin, T. R. (2010). Conditions for dye-filling of sensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 188(1), 58-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditions for dye-filling of sensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans
2010 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 58-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dye-filling is a common method used to stain Caenorhabditis elegans ensory neurons in vivo. While the amphids and phasmids are easy to tain, a subset of sensory neurons, the IL2 neurons, are difficult to tain reproducibly. Here we examined the conditions under which the IL2 eurons take up the lipophilic fluorescent dye DiI. We find that IL2 ye-filling depends on salt concentration, but not osmolarity. Low salt rior and during incubation is important for efficient dye uptake. dditional parameters that affect dye-filling are the speed of shaking uring incubation and the addition of detergents. Our modified ye-filling procedure provides a reliable method to distinguish mutant lleles that stain amphids and phasmids, IL2 neurons, or both. An dditional benefit is that it can also stain the excretory duct. The ethod allows genetic screens to be performed to identify mutants that electively affect only one of the sensory structures or the excretory uct.

National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13709 (URN)10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.02.003 (DOI)000276866400009 ()20149821 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77950460160 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Xue-Franzen, Y., Johnsson, A., Brodin, D., Henriksson, J., Bürglin, T. R. & Wright, A. P. H. (2010). Genome-wide characterisation of the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase in budding yeast during stress adaptation reveals evolutionarily conserved and diverged roles. BMC Genomics, 11, Article ID 200.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide characterisation of the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase in budding yeast during stress adaptation reveals evolutionarily conserved and diverged roles
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2010 (English)In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 11, article id 200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Gcn5 is a transcriptional coactivator with histone cetyltransferase activity that is conserved with regard to structure as ell as its histone substrates throughout the eukaryotes. Gene egulatory networks within cells are thought to be evolutionarily iverged. The use of evolutionarily divergent yeast species, such as S. erevisiae and S. pombe, which can be studied under similar nvironmental conditions, provides an opportunity to examine the nterface between conserved regulatory components and their cellular pplications in different organisms. esults: We show that Gcn5 is important for a common set of stress esponses in evolutionarily diverged yeast species and that the activity f the conserved histone acetyltransferase domain is required. We define group of KCl stress response genes in S. cerevisiae that are pecifically dependent on Gcn5. Gcn5 is localised to many Gcn5-dependent enes including Gcn5 repressed targets such as FLO8. Gcn5 regulates ivergent sets of KCl responsive genes in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. enome-wide localization studies showed a tendency for redistribution of cn5 during KCl stress adaptation in S. cerevisiae from short genes to he transcribed regions of long genes. An analogous redistribution was ot observed in S. pombe. onclusions: Gcn5 is required for the regulation of divergent sets of Cl stress-response genes in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe even though it s required a common group of stress responses, including the response o KCl. Genes that are physically associated with Gcn5 require its ctivity for their repression or activation during stress adaptation, roviding support for a role of Gcn5 as a corepressor as well as a oactivator. The tendency of Gcn5 to re-localise to the transcribed egions of long genes during KCl stress adaptation suggests that Gcn5 lays a specific role in the expression of long genes under adaptive onditions, perhaps by regulating transcriptional elongation as has been een for Gcn5 in S. pombe. Interestingly an analogous redistribution of cn5 is not seen in S. pombe. The study thus provides important new nsights in relation to why coregulators like Gcn5 are required for the orrect expression of some genes but not others.

National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13712 (URN)10.1186/1471-2164-11-200 (DOI)000277270600002 ()20338033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77952260641 (Scopus ID)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Functional aspects of the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase in stress responses of evolutionarily diverged yest species

Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Mukherjee, K., Brocchieri, L. & Bürglin, T. R. (2009). A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes. Molecular biology and evolution, 26(12), 2775-2794
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes
2009 (English)In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2775-2794Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The full complement of homeobox transcription factor sequences, including genes and pseudogenes, was determined from the analysis of 10 complete genomes from flowering plants, moss, Selaginella, unicellular green algae, and red algae. Our exhaustive genome-wide searches resulted in the discovery in each class of a greater number of homeobox genes than previously reported. All homeobox genes can be unambiguously classified by sequence evolutionary analysis into 14 distinct classes also characterized by conserved intron-exon structure and by unique codomain architectures. We identified many new genes belonging to previously defined classes (HD-ZIP I to IV, BEL, KNOX, PLINC, WOX). Other newly identified genes allowed us to characterize PHD, DDT, NDX, and LD genes as members of four new evolutionary classes and to define two additional classes, which we named SAWADEE and PINTOX. Our comprehensive analysis allowed us to identify several newly characterized conserved motifs, including novel zinc finger motifs in SAWADEE and DDT. Members of the BEL and KNOX classes were found in Chlorobionta (green plants) and in Rhodophyta. We found representatives of the DDT, WOX, and PINTOX classes only in green plants, including unicellular green algae, moss, and vascular plants. All 14 homeobox gene classes were represented in flowering plants, Selaginella, and moss, suggesting that they had already differentiated in the last common ancestor of moss and vascular plants.

Keywords
Homeobox, Homeodomain, Plant, Transcription factor, homeodomain protein, article, BEL gene, DDT gene, exon, gene identification, gene sequence, green alga, HD ZIP I gene, HD ZIP II gene, HD ZIP III gene, HD ZIP IV gene, intron, KNOX gene, last common ancestor, LD gene, molecular evolution, moss, NDX gene, nonhuman, PHD gene, phylogeny, PINTOX gene, plant gene, plant genome, PLINC gene, red alga, SAWADEE gene, Selaginella, sequence homology, vascular plant, WOX gene, zinc finger motif, Amino Acid Motifs, Amino Acid Sequence, Evolution, Molecular, Genes, Homeobox, Genes, Plant, Homeodomain Proteins, Introns, Leucine Zippers, Likelihood Functions, Models, Genetic, Molecular Sequence Data, Plants, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Sequence Alignment, Zinc Fingers, Bryophyta, Chlorophyta, Magnoliophyta, Rhodophyta, Tracheophyta, Viridiplantae
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-20885 (URN)10.1093/molbev/msp201 (DOI)000271818500012 ()19734295 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70450265540 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-18 Last updated: 2017-07-18Bibliographically approved
Bratic, I., Hench, J., Henriksson, J., Antebi, A., Bürglin, T. R. & Trifunovic, A. (2009). Mitochondrial DNA level, but not active replicase, is essential for Caenorhabditis elegans development. Nucleic Acids Research, 37(6), 1817-1828
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial DNA level, but not active replicase, is essential for Caenorhabditis elegans development
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2009 (English)In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1817-1828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of studies showed that the development and the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on mitochondrial function. In this study, we addressed the role of mitochondrial DNA levels and mtDNA maintenance in development of C. elegans by analyzing deletion mutants for mitochondrial polymerase gamma (polg-1(ok1548)). Surprisingly, even though previous studies in other model organisms showed necessity of polymerase gamma for embryonic development, homozygous polg-1(ok1548) mutants had normal development and reached adulthood without any morphological defects. However, polg-1 deficient animals have a seriously compromised gonadal function as a result of severe mitochondrial depletion, leading to sterility and shortened lifespan. Our results indicate that the gonad is the primary site of mtDNA replication, whilst the mtDNA of adult somatic tissues mainly stems from the developing embryo. Furthermore, we show that the mtDNA copy number shows great plasticity as it can be almost tripled as a response to the environmental stimuli. Finally, we show that the mtDNA copy number is an essential limiting factor for the worm development and therefore, a number of mechanisms set to maintain mtDNA levels exist, ensuring a normal development of C. elegans even in the absence of the mitochondrial replicase.

National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13907 (URN)10.1093/nar/gkp018 (DOI)000265097400017 ()19181702 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-64549151315 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2017-07-18Bibliographically approved
Hench, J., Henriksson, J., Lüppert, M. & Bürglin, T. R. (2009). Spatio-temporal reference model of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis with cell contact maps. Developmental Biology, 333(1), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-temporal reference model of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis with cell contact maps
2009 (English)In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 333, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model for developmental biology for decades. Still, the few publicly available spatio-temporal (4D) data sets have conflicting information regarding variability of cell positions and are not well-suited for a standard 4D embryonic model, due to compression. We have recorded six uncompressed embryos, and determined their lineage and 4D coordinates, including nuclear radii, until the end of gastrulation. We find a remarkable degree of stability in the cell positions, as well as little rotational movement, which allowed us to combine the data into a single reference model of C. elegans embryogenesis. Using Voronoi decomposition we generated the list of all predicted cell contacts during early embryogenesis and calculated these contacts up to the similar to 150 cell stage, and find that about 1500 contacts last 2.5 min or longer. The cell contact map allows for comparison of multiple 4D data sets, e. g., mutants or related species, at the cellular level. A comparison of our uncompressed 4D model with a compressed embryo shows that up to 40% of the cell contacts can be different. To visualize the 4D model interactively we developed a software utility. Our model provides an anatomical resource and can serve as foundation to display 4D expression data, a basis for developmental systems biology.

National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13885 (URN)10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.06.014 (DOI)000272260100001 ()19527702 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-68349155699 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Bürglin, T. R. (2008). Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif. BMC Genomics, 9, 127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif
2008 (English)In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 9, p. 127-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results: We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion: In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have arisen in very early eukaryotic evolution, and gave rise eventually to hh and hh-related genes in animals. The results indicate a hitherto unsuspected ability of Hog domain encoding genes to evolve new N-termini. In one instance in Cnidaria, the Hh N-terminal signaling domain is associated with a VWA domain and lacks a Hog domain, suggesting a modular mode of evolution also for the N-terminal domain. The Hog domain proteins, the inteins and VWA-Vint proteins are three families of Hint domain proteins that evolved in parallel in eukaryotes.

National Category
Microbiology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-17671 (URN)10.1186/1471-2164-9-127 (DOI)000255706000001 ()18334026 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-42949083286 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Bürglin, T. R. (2008). The Hedgehog protein family. Genome Biology, 9(11), 241
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Hedgehog protein family
2008 (English)In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 241-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is one of the fundamental signal transduction pathways in animal development and is also involved in stem-cell maintenance and carcinogenesis. The hedgehog (hh) gene was first discovered in Drosophila, and members of the family have since been found in most metazoa. Hh proteins are composed of two domains, an amino-terminal domain HhN, which has the biological signal activity, and a carboxy-terminal autocatalytic domain HhC, which cleaves Hh into two parts in an intramolecular reaction and adds a cholesterol moiety to HhN. HhC has sequence similarity to the self-splicing inteins, and the shared region is termed Hint. New classes of proteins containing the Hint domain have been discovered recently in bacteria and eukaryotes, and the Hog class, of which Hh proteins comprise one family, is widespread throughout eukaryotes. The non-Hh Hog proteins have carboxy-terminal domains ( the Hog domain) highly similar to HhC, although they lack the HhN domain, and instead have other amino-terminal domains. Hog proteins are found in many protists, but the Hh family emerged only in early metazoan evolution. HhN is modified by cholesterol at its carboxyl terminus and by palmitate at its amino terminus in both flies and mammals. The modified HhN is released from the cell and travels through the extracellular space. On binding its receptor Patched, it relieves the inhibition that Patched exerts on Smoothened, a G-protein-coupled receptor. The resulting signaling cascade converges on the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci), or its mammalian counterparts, the Gli proteins, which activate or repress target genes.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-14176 (URN)10.1186/gb-2008-9-11-241 (DOI)000261273100004 ()19040769 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-59449105747 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-18 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2017-07-18Bibliographically approved
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