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Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y., Yazawa, A. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 265, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

Keywords
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Emotion, Happiness, Stressful life events
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.004 (DOI)000435428300048 ()29778053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047191646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Tachimori, H., Inoue, Y., Shinkai, T., Yoshimura, R., Nakamura, J., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 72(9), 713-722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Japan, outpatients, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35385 (URN)10.1111/pcn.12685 (DOI)000443700900007 ()29845681 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050950471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Leinsalu, M. (2018). Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, 26(10), 1070-1078
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults
2018 (English)In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1070-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

Keywords
childhood, hunger, death ideation, suicide ideation, Estonia
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35774 (URN)10.1016/j.jagp.2018.06.005 (DOI)000445766200010 ()30076079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050695608 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Lara, E., Stubbs, B., Carvalho, A. F., Oh, H., Stickley, A., . . . Vancampfort, D. (2018). Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 66(4), 721-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
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2018 (English)In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

Keywords
chronic physical conditions, low- and middle-income countries, mild cognitive impairment, multimorbidity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34620 (URN)10.1111/jgs.15288 (DOI)000430300800014 ()29427504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041722415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Ng, C. F., Watanabe, C., Inoue, Y., Koyanagi, A. & Konishi, S. (2018). General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.
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2018 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.

METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47-77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had 'Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?' in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.

RESULTS: During the follow-up period (2000-2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.

CONCLUSIONS: GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.

Keywords
Death, Japan, epidemiology, mortality
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36164 (URN)10.1017/S2045796018000434 (DOI)30103836 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052710615 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A. & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study. PLoS ONE, 13(1), Article ID e0191651.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34492 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0191651 (DOI)000423412500065 ()29364978 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041125808 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Koyanagi, A., DeVylder, J. E. & Stickley, A. (2018). Seasonal Allergies and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), Article ID E1965.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal Allergies and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id E1965Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seasonal allergies have been associated with mental health problems, though the evidence is still emergent, particularly in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Latino and Asian American Survey (years 2001⁻2003). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relations between lifetime allergies and lifetime psychiatric disorders (each disorder in a separate model), adjusting for socio-demographic variables (including region of residence) and tobacco use. Analyses were also stratified to test for effect modification by race and sex. A history of seasonal allergies was associated with greater odds of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use. The associations between seasonal allergies and mood disorders, substance use disorders, and alcohol use disorders were particularly strong for Latino Americans. The association between seasonal allergies and eating disorders was stronger for men than women. Seasonal allergies are a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Individuals complaining of seasonal allergies should be screened for early signs of mental health problems and referred to specialized services accordingly.

Keywords
African Americans, Allergies, Asians, Latinos, allergic rhinitis, psychiatric disorders
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36383 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15091965 (DOI)000445765600174 ()30205581 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053299084 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Oh, H., Stickley, A., Stubbs, B., Veronese, N., Vancampfort, D., . . . DeVylder, J. E. (2018). Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. Schizophrenia Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries
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2018 (English)In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.

Keywords
Psychotic experience, Risk factor, Sibship size, Birth order
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35736 (URN)10.1016/j.schres.2018.06.019 (DOI)29929772 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048792554 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y. & Kamio, Y. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study. European psychiatry, 45, 227-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study
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2017 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
ADHD, Multimorbidity, Physical disease, Epidemiology, Stress
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33148 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.07.010 (DOI)000414461300032 ()28957792 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029816109 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Ruchkin, V., Koposov, R. A., Koyanagi, A. & Stickley, A. (2017). Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(5), 691-698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders
2017 (English)In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

Keywords
ADHD, Juvenile delinquents, Psychopathology, Suicide
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31075 (URN)10.1007/s10578-016-0693-9 (DOI)000412534900001 ()27734259 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84991073158 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9565-5004

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