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Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y., Yazawa, A. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 265, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

Keywords
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Emotion, Happiness, Stressful life events
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.004 (DOI)000435428300048 ()29778053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047191646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Tachimori, H., Inoue, Y., Shinkai, T., Yoshimura, R., Nakamura, J., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Japan, outpatients, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35385 (URN)10.1111/pcn.12685 (DOI)29845681 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Leinsalu, M. (2018). Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults
2018 (English)In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

Keywords
childhood, hunger, death ideation, suicide ideation, Estonia
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35774 (URN)10.1016/j.jagp.2018.06.005 (DOI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Lara, E., Stubbs, B., Carvalho, A. F., Oh, H., Stickley, A., . . . Vancampfort, D. (2018). Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 66(4), 721-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
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2018 (English)In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

Keywords
chronic physical conditions, low- and middle-income countries, mild cognitive impairment, multimorbidity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34620 (URN)10.1111/jgs.15288 (DOI)000430300800014 ()29427504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041722415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A. & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study. PLoS ONE, 13(1), Article ID e0191651.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34492 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0191651 (DOI)000423412500065 ()29364978 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041125808 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Oh, H., Stickley, A., Stubbs, B., Veronese, N., Vancampfort, D., . . . DeVylder, J. E. (2018). Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries. Schizophrenia Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries
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2018 (English)In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.

Keywords
Psychotic experience, Risk factor, Sibship size, Birth order
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35736 (URN)10.1016/j.schres.2018.06.019 (DOI)29929772 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048792554 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y. & Kamio, Y. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study. European psychiatry, 45, 227-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study
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2017 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
ADHD, Multimorbidity, Physical disease, Epidemiology, Stress
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33148 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.07.010 (DOI)000414461300032 ()28957792 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029816109 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Ruchkin, V., Koposov, R. A., Koyanagi, A. & Stickley, A. (2017). Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(5), 691-698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders
2017 (English)In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

Keywords
ADHD, Juvenile delinquents, Psychopathology, Suicide
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31075 (URN)10.1007/s10578-016-0693-9 (DOI)000412534900001 ()27734259 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84991073158 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
DeVylder, J. E., Koyanagi, A., Unick, J., Oh, H., Nam, B. & Stickley, A. (2016). Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(6), 1353-1362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries
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2016 (English)In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1353-1362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P < .001) and prevalence of psychotic experiences (P < .001), compared to individuals in middle-income countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29942 (URN)10.1093/schbul/sbw044 (DOI)000388029100011 ()27109925 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84994430037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Koposov, R., McKee, M., Murphy, A. & Ruchkin, V. (2015). Binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(3), 540-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents
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2015 (English)In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 540-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.

METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.

RESULTS: Among the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females-2.6%; males-3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).

CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.

National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26533 (URN)10.1111/acer.12644 (DOI)000350641000019 ()25703623 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84923789104 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2017-06-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9565-5004

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