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Inagawa, T., Narita, Z., Sugawara, N., Maruo, K., Stickley, A., Yokoi, Y. & Sumiyoshi, T. (2019). A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 50(4), 273-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
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2019 (English)In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 273-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
brain stimulation, cognition, meta-analysis, neurocognitive disorder, tDCS
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36510 (URN)10.1177/1550059418800889 (DOI)000469869900006 ()30229671 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059696844 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Ruchkin, V. (2019). ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54(6), 683-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure
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2019 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Adolescent, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Depressive symptoms, Violent victimization, Witness violence
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37622 (URN)10.1007/s00127-019-01662-5 (DOI)000469248100004 ()30706080 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060842347 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Inoue, Y., Stickley, A., Yazawa, A., Aida, J., Kawachi, I., Kondo, K. & Fujiwara, T. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 28(1), 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami
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2019 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

Keywords
elderly, epidemiology, population survey, PTSD
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32715 (URN)10.1017/S2045796017000233 (DOI)000455577800008 ()2-s2.0-85019176671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Veronese, N., Vancampfort, D., Stickley, A., Jackson, S. E., Oh, H., . . . Smith, L. (2019). Association of bullying victimization with overweight and obesity among adolescents from 41 low- and middle-income countries. Pediatric Obesity, Article ID e12571.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of bullying victimization with overweight and obesity among adolescents from 41 low- and middle-income countries
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2019 (English)In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, article id e12571Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Data on the association between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization among adolescents are scarce from low- and middle-income countries.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization in 41 low- and middle-income countries.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analysed. Data on past 30-day bullying victimization (including type) and body mass index based on measured weight and height were collected. The 2007 WHO Child Growth reference was used to define overweight and obesity. Multivariable logistic regression (multinomial and binary) and meta-analyses based on country-wise estimates were conducted. Data on 114 240 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years were analysed (mean age [SD], 13.8 [1.0] y; 48.8% girls).

RESULTS: Among girls, compared with normal weight, overweight (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; between-country heterogeneity I2  = 0.0%) and obesity (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; I2  = 0.0%) were associated with significantly higher odds for any bullying victimization, but no significant association was observed among boys. However, overweight and obesity were both associated with significantly increased odds for bullying by being made fun of because of physical appearance among both sexes-obesity (vs normal weight): girls OR = 3.42 (95% CI, 2.49-4.71); boys OR = 2.38 (95% CI, 1.67-3.37).

CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies to reduce bullying of children with overweight/obesity are needed in low- and middle-income countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
adolescents, bullying victimization, epidemiology, obesity, overweight
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38707 (URN)10.1111/ijpo.12571 (DOI)31389204 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Kamio, Y., Takahashi, H., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y., . . . Ruchkin, V. (2019). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents
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2019 (English)In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

Keywords
ADHD, Adolescent, Future expectations, Hyperactivity, Inattention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37898 (URN)10.1007/s12402-019-00292-w (DOI)30852726 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062770066 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Koyanagi, A., Oh, H. & Ruchkin, V. (2019). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Community Violence Exposure in Russian Adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Community Violence Exposure in Russian Adolescents
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

A large body of research has shown that exposure to community violence is common for many children across the world. However, less is known about exposure in particular subgroups such as those children with developmental disorders. To address this research gap, the aim of this study was to examine community violence exposure (CVE) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the role of gender in this association. Data were analyzed from 2,782 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Arkhangelsk, Russia that were collected during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). ADHD status was assessed with the hyperactivity/inattention scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Information was obtained on past-year witnessing and violence victimization in the community. Results showed that CVE was more prevalent in children with ADHD symptoms. Specifically, 75.1% of children with ADHD symptoms had been exposed to any violence versus 62.3% in the non-ADHD group (χ2 = 18.65, p <.001). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) revealed that CVE was significantly higher for adolescents with ADHD symptoms for both witnessing and victimization, while exposure was significantly higher for ADHD boys compared with girls. The findings of this study suggest that CVE may be elevated in adolescents with higher ADHD symptoms. Given that CVE has been associated with a variety of negative social and psychological outcomes in typically developing children, an important task for future research is to determine what factors are associated with CVE in adolescents with ADHD symptoms including those relating to such phenomena as comorbid psychopathology, the family, and peer relations, so that interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce CVE and its detrimental effects in this population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
ADHD, adolescent, community violence, Russia, victimization, witnessing
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38671 (URN)10.1177/0886260519861651 (DOI)000476023000001 ()31288607 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068878353 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Leinsalu, M., Ruchkin, V., Oh, H., Narita, Z. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population. European psychiatry, 56, 91-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population
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2019 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

Keywords
ADHD, Adult, Discrimination, Epidemiology
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37426 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.12.004 (DOI)000458502900011 ()30654318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059847384 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Leinsalu, M., Reile, R. & Stickley, A. (2019). Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-2016. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Article ID jech-2018-211939.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-2016
2019 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, article id jech-2018-211939Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented credit-driven economic growth that was followed by a deep recession. This study examined the impact of profound macroeconomic changes on population mental health in Estonia in 2004-2016.

METHODS: Data on 17 794 individuals in the 20-64 age group were obtained from seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of past 30-day depression was calculated for men and women further stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether these characteristics were associated with the yearly variation in depression.

RESULTS: In 2006, the adjusted prevalence ratio for depression was 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) for men and 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) for women as compared with 2004; in 2010, the prevalence ratio as compared with 2008 for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CIs 1.04 to 1.43 and 1.09 to 1.37, respectively). Among men, the increase in the prevalence of depression in 2008-2010 was statistically significant for 35-64 year olds, ethnic Estonians, those who were married, mid-educated or were employed, whereas among women, a significant increase was observed in 50-64 year olds, Estonians and non-Estonians, those who were not-married, were highly educated or mid-educated, in the mid-income group or were employed.

CONCLUSIONS: Population mental health is responsive to macroeconomic changes. In less wealthy high-income countries, the greater impact of recession on depression among advantaged groups may relate to a higher debt burden coupled with job insecurity.

Keywords
depression, economic fluctuations, socioeconomic differences
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38732 (URN)10.1136/jech-2018-211939 (DOI)31406016 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P15-0520:1
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Tasmin, S., Ng, C. F., Stickley, A., Md, N., Saroar, G., Yasumoto, S. & Watanabe, C. (2019). Effects of Short-term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter on the Lung Function of School Children in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Epidemiology, 30(Suppl 1), S15-S23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Short-term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter on the Lung Function of School Children in Dhaka, Bangladesh
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2019 (English)In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, no Suppl 1, p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate pollution may adversely affect children's lung function. However, evidence on this association remains scarce in Asia despite this region having the greatest burden of disease due to air pollution.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) on the lung function of school children in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The possible seasonal modification of this association was also examined.

METHODS: A panel of 315 school children who were 9-16 years of age were recruited from three schools in and around Dhaka. Lung function was assessed using a spirometry test during the cool and warm seasons in 2013, yielding six measurements per child. Daily PM data were retrieved from nearby air monitoring stations. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine associations. Seasonal modification was examined by stratification.

RESULTS: An inverse association was observed for the lung function parameters with PM2.5; peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume within 1 second (FEV1) decreased with increasing PM2.5. The percent deviation from the personal median was -4.19% [95% confidence interval (CI): -5.72, -2.66] for PEF and -2.05% (95% CI: -2.92, -1.18) for FEV1 for a 20 µg/m increase in PM2.5 on the previous day. Results for PM10 were less consistent. The estimated effects of PM on lung functions were generally greater in the warm season.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM is associated with worse lung function in children living in highly polluted settings, with the strength of these adverse PM effects varying by season.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38332 (URN)10.1097/EDE.0000000000001012 (DOI)31181002 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067805821 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Veronese, N., Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Stickley, A., Oh, H., . . . Lara, E. (2019). Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey.. Nutrients, 11(4), Article ID E749.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey.
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id E749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007⁻2008) were analyzed to assess this association. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 3,672 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 61.4 (18.3); 56% females]. The prevalence of MCI was 8.5%, while 11.0% and 20.8% experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with 2.82 (95%CI = 1.65⁻4.84) and 2.51 (95%CI = 1.63⁻3.87) times higher odds for MCI compared with no food insecurity, respectively. The OR for those aged ≥65 years with severe food insecurity was particularly high (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 2.20⁻6.81). In conclusion, food insecurity was strongly associated with MCI among South African older adults. Future longitudinal research is required to assess whether addressing food insecurity may reduce risk of MCI and subsequent dementia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
South Africa, epidemiology, food insecurity, mild cognitive impairment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37961 (URN)10.3390/nu11040749 (DOI)000467749800042 ()30935047 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Projects
Adverse childhood experiences, alcohol use in adulthood and mortality: Examining the associations using retrospective survey data and record linkage in Estonia [50/2014_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-2223

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