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Inagawa, T., Narita, Z., Sugawara, N., Maruo, K., Stickley, A., Yokoi, Y. & Sumiyoshi, T. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Article ID 1550059418800889.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
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2018 (English)In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, article id 1550059418800889Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.

Keywords
brain stimulation, cognition, meta-analysis, neurocognitive disorder, tDCS
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36510 (URN)10.1177/1550059418800889 (DOI)30229671 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Takahashi, H., Nakamura, T., Kim, J., Kikuchi, H., Nakahachi, T., Ishitobi, M., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Acoustic Hyper-Reactivity and Negatively Skewed Locomotor Activity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, Article ID 355.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic Hyper-Reactivity and Negatively Skewed Locomotor Activity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Investigation of objective and quantitative behavioral phenotypes along with neurobiological endophenotypes might lead to increased knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we investigated the association between locomotor dynamics and characteristics of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation in ASD (n = 14) and typically developing (TD, n = 13) children. The ASR was recorded in response to acoustic stimuli in increments of 10 dB (65-105 dB SPL). We calculated the average ASR magnitude for each stimulus intensity and peak-ASR latency. Locomotor activity was continuously measured with a watch-type actigraph. We examined statistics of locomotor activity, such as mean activity levels and the skewness of activity. Children with ASD had a significantly greater ASR magnitude in response to a weak acoustic stimulus, which reflects acoustic hyper-reactivity. The skewness of all-day activity was significantly more negative in children with ASD than those with TD. Skewness of daytime activity was also more negative, although only of borderline statistical significance. For all children, the higher mean and more negatively skewed daytime activity, reflecting hyperactivity that was associated with sporadic large daytime "troughs," was significantly correlated with acoustic hyper-reactivity. The more negatively skewed locomotor activity occurring in the daytime was also associated with impaired sensorimotor gating, examined as prepulse inhibition at a prepulse intensity of 70 dB. This comprehensive investigation of locomotor dynamics and the ASR extends our understanding of the neurophysiology that underlies ASD.

Keywords
acoustic hyper-reactivity, acoustic startle reflex, autism spectrum disorders, endophenotypes, locomotor activity, prepulse inhibition, sensorimotor gating
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36135 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00355 (DOI)000440798400002 ()30127755 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054930338 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Stickley, A., Singh, F. & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Asthma and Mental Health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychiatry Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asthma and Mental Health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.

Keywords
Asthma, Depression, Anxiety, Substance use, Alcohol use, Race
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36954 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.046 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y., Yazawa, A. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 265, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

Keywords
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Emotion, Happiness, Stressful life events
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.004 (DOI)000435428300048 ()29778053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047191646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Tachimori, H., Inoue, Y., Shinkai, T., Yoshimura, R., Nakamura, J., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 72(9), 713-722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Japan, outpatients, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35385 (URN)10.1111/pcn.12685 (DOI)000443700900007 ()29845681 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050950471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A. & Leinsalu, M. (2018). Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 332-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

Keywords
adult, childhood, depression, hunger, stress
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33403 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2017.09.013 (DOI)000414329000045 ()29031183 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030995992 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

Also funded by Estonian Research Council (IUT5-1)

Available from: 2017-09-15 Created: 2017-09-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Leinsalu, M. (2018). Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, 26(10), 1070-1078
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults
2018 (English)In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1070-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

Keywords
childhood, hunger, death ideation, suicide ideation, Estonia
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35774 (URN)10.1016/j.jagp.2018.06.005 (DOI)000445766200010 ()30076079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050695608 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Lara, E., Stubbs, B., Carvalho, A. F., Oh, H., Stickley, A., . . . Vancampfort, D. (2018). Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 66(4), 721-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
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2018 (English)In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

Keywords
chronic physical conditions, low- and middle-income countries, mild cognitive impairment, multimorbidity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34620 (URN)10.1111/jgs.15288 (DOI)000430300800014 ()29427504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041722415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Yau, R. & DeVylder, J. E. (2018). Discrimination and Suicidality amongst racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 517-523
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrimination and Suicidality amongst racial and ethnic minorities in the United States
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 245, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Over the past decade, suicide rates have increased among certain racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. To better understand suicide vulnerability among people of color, studies have examined the relations between social risk factors –such as discrimination –and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. However, the literature has been inconsistent, calling for more population studies.

Methods: This study analyzed data from two surveys: (1) The National Survey of American Life; and (2) The National Latino and Asian American Survey, which taken together are representative of Black, Latino, and Asians in the United States. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between levels of discrimination on the Everyday Discrimination Scale and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Additional models tested for effect modification by race and by psychiatric diagnosis.

Results: We found that individuals who reported the highest levels of discrimination had greater odds of reporting lifetime suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, when compared with people who did not report discrimination, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Notably, discrimination increased odds of reporting an unplanned suicide attempt and a suicide attempt without the intent to die. Adjusting for psychiatric diagnoses attenuated these effects. We found no evidence of effect modification by race or by psychiatric diagnosis.

Limitations: Data were cross-sectional, which did not allow for causal inferences.

Conclusions: Future translational research can explore how screening for discrimination may help identify individuals and groups of racial/ethnic minorities at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

Keywords
Suicide, discrimination, Black, Asian, Latino, Hispanic
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36709 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.059 (DOI)30445379 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056480587 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Ng, C. F., Watanabe, C., Inoue, Y., Koyanagi, A. & Konishi, S. (2018). General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.
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2018 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.

METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47-77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had 'Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?' in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.

RESULTS: During the follow-up period (2000-2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.

CONCLUSIONS: GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.

Keywords
Death, Japan, epidemiology, mortality
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36164 (URN)10.1017/S2045796018000434 (DOI)30103836 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052710615 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-2223

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