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Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Ruchkin, V. (2019). ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure.. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure.
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2019 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

Keywords
Adolescent, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Depressive symptoms, Violent victimization, Witness violence
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37622 (URN)10.1007/s00127-019-01662-5 (DOI)30706080 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060842347 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Inoue, Y., Stickley, A., Yazawa, A., Aida, J., Kawachi, I., Kondo, K. & Fujiwara, T. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 28(1), 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami
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2019 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

Keywords
elderly, epidemiology, population survey, PTSD
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32715 (URN)10.1017/S2045796017000233 (DOI)000455577800008 ()2-s2.0-85019176671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Kamio, Y., Takahashi, H., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y., . . . Ruchkin, V. (2019). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents
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2019 (English)In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

Keywords
ADHD, Adolescent, Future expectations, Hyperactivity, Inattention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37898 (URN)10.1007/s12402-019-00292-w (DOI)30852726 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062770066 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Leinsalu, M., Ruchkin, V., Oh, H., Narita, Z. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population. European psychiatry, 56, 91-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population
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2019 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

Keywords
ADHD, Adult, Discrimination, Epidemiology
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37426 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.12.004 (DOI)000458502900011 ()30654318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059847384 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Oh, H., Koyanagi, A., Leinsalu, M., Narita, Z., Roberts, B. & McKee, M. (2019). Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(2), 158-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 158-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.

METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.

RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.

CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.

Keywords
Discrimination, Eastern Europe, epidemiology, mental health
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37766 (URN)10.1177/0020764019827982 (DOI)000461225700010 ()30755059 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061717078 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Waldman, K., Stickley, A., DeVylder, J. E. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Psychotic experiences and physical health conditions in the United States. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 90, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychotic experiences and physical health conditions in the United States
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2019 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 90, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Psychotic experiences are associated with physical health conditions, though the associations have not always been consistent in the literature. The current study examines the associations between psychotic experiences and several physical health conditions across four racial groups in the United States.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys to examine the associations between psychotic experiences and physical health conditions across four racial groups (White, Black, Asian, Latino). We used multivariable logistic regression to calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals.

Results: Psychotic experiences were significantly associated with several physical health conditions depending on the condition and the racial group being examined. Further, the number of physical health conditions was associated with increasingly greater risk for psychotic experiences in a linear fashion.

Conclusions: Psychotic experiences may serve as useful markers for physical health conditions and overall physical health status. Future studies should examine the underlying mechanisms between psychotic experiences and health, and explore the clinical utility of psychotic experiences for preventive interventions.

Keywords
psychotic experience, race, multimorbidity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37162 (URN)10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.12.007 (DOI)30639892 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059607548 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-03 Created: 2019-01-03 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Ebishima, K., Takahashi, H., Stickley, A., Nakahachi, T., Sumiyoshi, T. & Kamio, Y. (2019). Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research. Method: We investigated the ASR and its modulation in 11 children with ASD and 18 with typical development (TD), analyzing the relationship between startle measures and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Second Edition. Results: Peak-ASR latency was negatively correlated with the VABS total score and socialization domain score of adaptive behaviors, while the ASR magnitude for relatively weak stimuli of 75-85 dB was positively correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior scores. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the prepulse intensity of 70-75 dB was also correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior. However, these relationships did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prolonged peak-ASR latency of ASD children might be associated with impairment in the developmental level of adaptive behavior, and that the greater ASR magnitude to relatively weak acoustic stimuli and smaller PPI of ASD children might increase the risk of maladaptive behavior. Future studies that have larger sample sizes will be important for further elucidating the neurophysiological factors that underpin adaptive as well as maladaptive behaviors in ASD.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37615 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2019.00005 (DOI)000456238400001 ()30723400 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Stickley, A., Singh, F. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Self-reported asthma diagnosis and mental health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychiatry Research, 271, 721-725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-reported asthma diagnosis and mental health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
2019 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 271, p. 721-725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.

Keywords
Asthma, Depression, Anxiety, Substance use, Alcohol use, Race
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36954 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.046 (DOI)000460709900106 ()30791347 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058362253 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Haraguchi, H., Stickley, A., Saito, A., Takahashi, H. & Kamio, Y. (2019). Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 49(1), 324-334
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population
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2019 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 324-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the across time stability of autistic traits during the transition period from preschool to school age in the general population. The current study compared autistic traits assessed by a mother-reported quantitative measure, the Social Responsiveness Scale, at age 5 and 8 years and examined the intraclass correlation coefficients of scores across the period for 168 Japanese community-based children. Results showed that total and two subdomain-related autistic trait scores remained primarily stable in males and females. This stability was observed for both children with higher and lower autistic traits scores with a possible sex-specific pattern. Our findings suggest that autistic traits in the general population can be reliably assessed using quantitative measures for this age period.

Keywords
Autistic traits, Preschool children, Social Responsiveness Scale, Stability
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36549 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3770-z (DOI)30291497 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054675129 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Inagawa, T., Narita, Z., Sugawara, N., Maruo, K., Stickley, A., Yokoi, Y. & Sumiyoshi, T. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Article ID 1550059418800889.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
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2018 (English)In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, article id 1550059418800889Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.

Keywords
brain stimulation, cognition, meta-analysis, neurocognitive disorder, tDCS
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36510 (URN)10.1177/1550059418800889 (DOI)30229671 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059696844 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-2223

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