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Stickley, A., Koposov, R., Koyanagi, A., Inoue, Y. & Ruchkin, V. (2019). ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure.. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure.
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2019 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

Keywords
Adolescent, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Depressive symptoms, Violent victimization, Witness violence
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37622 (URN)10.1007/s00127-019-01662-5 (DOI)30706080 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Inoue, Y., Stickley, A., Yazawa, A., Aida, J., Kawachi, I., Kondo, K. & Fujiwara, T. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 28(1), 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami
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2019 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

Keywords
elderly, epidemiology, population survey, PTSD
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32715 (URN)10.1017/S2045796017000233 (DOI)000455577800008 ()2-s2.0-85019176671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Oh, H., Stickley, A., Singh, F. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Asthma and Mental Health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychiatry Research, 271, 721-725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asthma and Mental Health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
2019 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 271, p. 721-725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.

Keywords
Asthma, Depression, Anxiety, Substance use, Alcohol use, Race
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36954 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.046 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058362253 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Leinsalu, M., Ruchkin, V., Oh, H., Narita, Z. & Koyanagi, A. (2019). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population. European psychiatry, 56, 91-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population
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2019 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

Keywords
ADHD, Adult, Discrimination, Epidemiology
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37426 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.12.004 (DOI)30654318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059847384 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Ebishima, K., Takahashi, H., Stickley, A., Nakahachi, T., Sumiyoshi, T. & Kamio, Y. (2019). Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research. Method: We investigated the ASR and its modulation in 11 children with ASD and 18 with typical development (TD), analyzing the relationship between startle measures and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Second Edition. Results: Peak-ASR latency was negatively correlated with the VABS total score and socialization domain score of adaptive behaviors, while the ASR magnitude for relatively weak stimuli of 75-85 dB was positively correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior scores. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the prepulse intensity of 70-75 dB was also correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior. However, these relationships did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prolonged peak-ASR latency of ASD children might be associated with impairment in the developmental level of adaptive behavior, and that the greater ASR magnitude to relatively weak acoustic stimuli and smaller PPI of ASD children might increase the risk of maladaptive behavior. Future studies that have larger sample sizes will be important for further elucidating the neurophysiological factors that underpin adaptive as well as maladaptive behaviors in ASD.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37615 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2019.00005 (DOI)000456238400001 ()30723400 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Haraguchi, H., Stickley, A., Saito, A., Takahashi, H. & Kamio, Y. (2019). Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 49(1), 324-334
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population
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2019 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 324-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the across time stability of autistic traits during the transition period from preschool to school age in the general population. The current study compared autistic traits assessed by a mother-reported quantitative measure, the Social Responsiveness Scale, at age 5 and 8 years and examined the intraclass correlation coefficients of scores across the period for 168 Japanese community-based children. Results showed that total and two subdomain-related autistic trait scores remained primarily stable in males and females. This stability was observed for both children with higher and lower autistic traits scores with a possible sex-specific pattern. Our findings suggest that autistic traits in the general population can be reliably assessed using quantitative measures for this age period.

Keywords
Autistic traits, Preschool children, Social Responsiveness Scale, Stability
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36549 (URN)10.1007/s10803-018-3770-z (DOI)30291497 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054675129 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Inagawa, T., Narita, Z., Sugawara, N., Maruo, K., Stickley, A., Yokoi, Y. & Sumiyoshi, T. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Article ID 1550059418800889.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
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2018 (English)In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, article id 1550059418800889Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.

Keywords
brain stimulation, cognition, meta-analysis, neurocognitive disorder, tDCS
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36510 (URN)10.1177/1550059418800889 (DOI)30229671 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059696844 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Takahashi, H., Nakamura, T., Kim, J., Kikuchi, H., Nakahachi, T., Ishitobi, M., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Acoustic Hyper-Reactivity and Negatively Skewed Locomotor Activity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, Article ID 355.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic Hyper-Reactivity and Negatively Skewed Locomotor Activity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Investigation of objective and quantitative behavioral phenotypes along with neurobiological endophenotypes might lead to increased knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we investigated the association between locomotor dynamics and characteristics of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation in ASD (n = 14) and typically developing (TD, n = 13) children. The ASR was recorded in response to acoustic stimuli in increments of 10 dB (65-105 dB SPL). We calculated the average ASR magnitude for each stimulus intensity and peak-ASR latency. Locomotor activity was continuously measured with a watch-type actigraph. We examined statistics of locomotor activity, such as mean activity levels and the skewness of activity. Children with ASD had a significantly greater ASR magnitude in response to a weak acoustic stimulus, which reflects acoustic hyper-reactivity. The skewness of all-day activity was significantly more negative in children with ASD than those with TD. Skewness of daytime activity was also more negative, although only of borderline statistical significance. For all children, the higher mean and more negatively skewed daytime activity, reflecting hyperactivity that was associated with sporadic large daytime "troughs," was significantly correlated with acoustic hyper-reactivity. The more negatively skewed locomotor activity occurring in the daytime was also associated with impaired sensorimotor gating, examined as prepulse inhibition at a prepulse intensity of 70 dB. This comprehensive investigation of locomotor dynamics and the ASR extends our understanding of the neurophysiology that underlies ASD.

Keywords
acoustic hyper-reactivity, acoustic startle reflex, autism spectrum disorders, endophenotypes, locomotor activity, prepulse inhibition, sensorimotor gating
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36135 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00355 (DOI)000440798400002 ()30127755 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054930338 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y., Yazawa, A. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 265, 317-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

Keywords
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Emotion, Happiness, Stressful life events
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.004 (DOI)000435428300048 ()29778053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047191646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Tachimori, H., Inoue, Y., Shinkai, T., Yoshimura, R., Nakamura, J., . . . Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 72(9), 713-722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Japan, outpatients, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35385 (URN)10.1111/pcn.12685 (DOI)000443700900007 ()29845681 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050950471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-2223

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