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Stickley, A., Koyanagi, A., Takahashi, H., Ruchkin, V., Inoue, Y., Yazawa, A. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population. Psychiatry Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population
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2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

Keyword
ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Emotion, Happiness, Stressful life events
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.004 (DOI)29778053 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A. & Leinsalu, M. (2018). Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 332-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

Keyword
adult, childhood, depression, hunger, stress
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33403 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2017.09.013 (DOI)000414329000045 ()29031183 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030995992 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

Also funded by Estonian Research Council (IUT5-1)

Available from: 2017-09-15 Created: 2017-09-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Koyanagi, A., Lara, E., Stubbs, B., Carvalho, A. F., Oh, H., Stickley, A., . . . Vancampfort, D. (2018). Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 66(4), 721-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
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2018 (English)In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

Keyword
chronic physical conditions, low- and middle-income countries, mild cognitive impairment, multimorbidity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34620 (URN)10.1111/jgs.15288 (DOI)000430300800014 ()29427504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041722415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A. & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study. PLoS ONE, 13(1), Article ID e0191651.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34492 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0191651 (DOI)000423412500065 ()29364978 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041125808 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Takahashi, H., Nakahachi, T., Stickley, A., Ishitobi, M. & Kamio, Y. (2018). Relationship between physiological and parent-observed auditory over-responsiveness in children with typical development and those with autism spectrum disorders.. Autism, 22(3), 291-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between physiological and parent-observed auditory over-responsiveness in children with typical development and those with autism spectrum disorders.
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2018 (English)In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 291-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between caregiver-reported sensory processing abnormalities, and the physiological index of auditory over-responsiveness evaluated using acoustic startle response measures, in children with autism spectrum disorders and typical development. Mean acoustic startle response magnitudes in response to 65-105 dB stimuli, in increments of 10 dB, were analyzed in children with autism spectrum disorders and with typical development. Average peak startle latency was also examined. We examined the relationship of these acoustic startle response measures to parent-reported behavioral sensory processing patterns in everyday situations, assessed using the Sensory Profile for all participants. Low-threshold scores on the Sensory Profile auditory section were related to acoustic startle response magnitudes at 75 and 85 dB, but not to the lower intensities of 65 dB. The peak startle latency and acoustic startle response magnitudes at low-stimuli intensities of 65 and 75 dB were significantly related to the low-threshold quadrants (sensory sensitivity and sensation avoiding) scores and to the high-threshold quadrant of sensation seeking. Our results suggest that physiological assessment provides further information regarding auditory over-responsiveness to less-intense stimuli and its relationship to caregiver-observed sensory processing abnormalities in everyday situations.

Keyword
acoustic startle response, autism spectrum disorders, hypersensitivity, phenotype, response latency
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32261 (URN)10.1177/1362361316680497 (DOI)28286962 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046744648 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Tingstedt, O., Lindblad, F., Koposov, R., Blatný, M., Hrdlicka, M., Stickley, A. & Ruchkin, V. (2018). Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth: a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents.. European Journal of Public Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth: a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents.
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Although the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems (anxiety, somatic anxiety and depression) is well established, it remains unclear whether the pattern of this relationship differs by gender and in different cultures. The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural and gender-specific differences in the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems in youth from the Czech Republic and Russia.

Methods: The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was completed by representative community samples of adolescents, age 12-17 years, from the Czech Republic (N = 4770) and Russia (N = 2728).

Results: A strong association was observed between somatic complaints and internalizing psychopathology. Although the levels of internalizing problems differed by country and gender, they increased together with and largely in a similar way to somatic complaints for boys and girls in both countries.

Conclusion: The association between somatic symptoms and internalizing problems seems to be similar for boys and girls across cultures.

National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34493 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky001 (DOI)29373646 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Inoue, Y., Stickley, A., Yazawa, A., Aida, J., Kawachi, I., Kondo, K. & Fujiwara, T. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami
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2017 (English)In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

Keyword
elderly, epidemiology, population survey, PTSD
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32715 (URN)10.1017/S2045796017000233 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019176671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Jukkala, T., Stickley, A., Mäkinen, I. H., Baburin, A. & Sparén, P. (2017). Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2005. BMC Public Health, 17(1), Article ID 235.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2005
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2017 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

Keyword
Age-period-cohort analysis, Russia, Suicide
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32219 (URN)10.1186/s12889-017-4158-2 (DOI)000396054600003 ()28270123 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85014680421 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Sheng Ng, C. F., Konishi, S., Koyanagi, A. & Watanabe, C. (2017). Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001–2011. Environmental Research, 155, 134-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001–2011
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 155, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm2 was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm2: odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076–2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

Keyword
Air pollution, Airborne pollen, Japan, Mental health, Suicide mortality
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32203 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.02.008 (DOI)000398651000018 ()28219016 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013005061 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2017-06-19Bibliographically approved
Stickley, A., Tachibana, Y., Hashimoto, K., Haraguchi, H., Miyake, A., Morokuma, S., . . . Kamio, Y. (2017). Assessment of Autistic Traits in Children Aged 2 to 4½ Years With the Preschool Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P): Findings from Japan. Autism Research, 10(5), 852-865
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Autistic Traits in Children Aged 2 to 4½ Years With the Preschool Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P): Findings from Japan
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2017 (English)In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 852-865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recent development and use of autism measures for the general population has led to a growing body of evidence which suggests that autistic traits are distributed along a continuum. However, as most existing autism measures were designed for use in children older than age 4, to date, little is known about the autistic continuum in children younger than age 4. As autistic symptoms are evident in the first few years, to address this research gap, the current study tested the preschool version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P) in children aged 2 to 4½ years in clinical (N = 74, average age 40 months, 26-51 months) and community settings (N = 357, average age 39 months, 25-50 months) in Japan. Using information obtained from different raters (mothers, other caregivers, and teachers) it was found that the scale demonstrated a good degree of internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, and a satisfactory degree of convergent validity for the clinical sample when compared with scores from diagnostic "gold standard" autism measures. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and the group comparisons also showed that the SRS-P total score discriminated well between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those without ASD. Importantly, this scale could identify autistic symptoms or traits distributed continually across the child population at this age irrespective of the presence of an ASD diagnosis. These findings suggest that the SRS-P might be a sensitive instrument for case identification including subthreshold ASD, as well as a potentially useful research tool for exploring ASD endophenotypes. Autism Res 2016.

Keyword
ASD, autistic traits, preschool children, quantitative measure, questionnaire, reliability, validity
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32220 (URN)10.1002/aur.1742 (DOI)000403927900014 ()28256099 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019612649 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-07-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-2223

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