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Saunders, F. P., Gilek, M. & Tafon, R. (2019). Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning. In: Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee (Ed.), Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future (pp. 175-199). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning
2019 (English)In: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 175-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37455 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98696-8_8 (DOI)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Local ID)978-3-319-98695-1 (ISBN)978-3-319-98696-8 (ISBN)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Archive number)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projects
BONUS BALTSPACE project
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 2186/3.1.1/2014Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research Council
Note

This work was the result of (1) the BONUS BALTSPACE project and was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU, Swedish Research Council FORMAS and other Baltic Sea national funding institutions and (2) research funding from The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies.

Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Gilek, M., Jönsson, A. M. & Saunders, F. (2019). Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report. Huddinge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: , 2019. p. 76
Series
Working Paper, ISSN 1404-1480 ; 2019:1
Keywords
Environmental governance, regional cooperation, eutrophication, fisheries, Baltic Sea
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37847 (URN)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-04-25
Saunders, F., Gilek, M., Day, J. C. C., Hassler, B., McCann, J. & Smythe, T. (2019). Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings. Ocean and Coastal Management, 169, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
marine spatial planning, integration, sectors, stakeholders, knowledge, policy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36931 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.11.011 (DOI)000459518700001 ()2-s2.0-85058030474 (Scopus ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Local ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Archive number)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projects
BALTSPACE
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea regionThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

This article develops an integration framework to analyse MSP practices across several Baltic Sea Region cases studies as well as cases studies from Australia (Great Barrier Reef) and the US (Rhode Island). While integration has been universally adopted as a policy principle to strive for, there is confusion about what it means, how to do it and what it implies in different MSP contexts. The task set here was not to fix a singular meaning to integration and what work it should do in MSP, but to better understand particular uses of the concept and their purposes in MSP practices. To do we consider existing literature to develop a five-part analytical framework, which includes cross-border, policy/sector, knowledge, stakeholder and temporal integration dimensions. The framework was applied to the several cases and usefully illustrated a variety of integration-related MSP questions, challenges and responses. Furthermore, we argue that an analytical focus on the multidimensionality of integration can help shed light on the various ‘balances’ related to sustainability commonly sought after in MSP – between environmental protection and maritime development; between strategic decision-making and participation; between scientific and experiential knowledge; on current problems and a concern for the future, among others.

Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Piwowarczyk, J., Gee, K., Gilek, M., Hassler, B., Luttmann, A., Maack, L., . . . Zaucha, J. (2019). Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles. Ocean and Coastal Management (175), 98-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 175, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37988 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.03.023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064041176 (Scopus ID)
Projects
BaltSpace
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Blažauskas, N., Gee, K., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Piwowarczyk, J., . . . Zaucha, J. (2019). New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning. Ocean and Coastal Management (169), 254-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 169, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EU MSP Directive is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room foradaptation to national contexts. The main objective in this article is to identify and analyse potential obstacles toeffective and efficient planning caused by the diversity among national MSP frameworks that the Directive'sbroad regulatory boundaries have led to. It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially betweenneighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across national borders. Divergence betweennational MSP frameworks can also emerge from how political, jurisdictional and, administrative systemsand traditions are organised in different Member States. It is shown that neighbouring countries can divergesubstantially in how the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability are balanced, which canmake transnational coordination challenging. Furthermore, it is shown that stakeholder consultations differamong Member States in terms of, for example, who were invited, how the consultations were undertaken, andthe role they play in relation to political decision-making. Because of these, and other differences in how MSPframeworks are being developed in the Member States, it is suggested that regional integration should bepromoted with discretion. From this perspective, it seems reasonable to embrace diversity, while simultaneouslypromoting the adaptive management of coordination problems at lower levels, when, or if, they emerge or canbe foreseen. Thus, increased integration of national MSP frameworks should be viewed as an instrument toreduce concrete efficiency losses, rather than as an intrinsic good.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Baltic sea, Sustainability, Ecosystem approach, Context-dependence, Transnational integration, Marine spatial planning, Stakeholder participation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37168 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.12.025 (DOI)000459518700026 ()2-s2.0-85059465398 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-01-05 Created: 2019-01-05 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Tafon, R. V. & Saunders, F. (2019). The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon. Journal of Agrarian Change, 19(1), 41-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon
2019 (English)In: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 41-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.

Keywords
Cameroon, land grabbing, NGO discourses and alliances, state and corporate power, (trans)national resistance
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34889 (URN)10.1111/joac.12264 (DOI)000453777100003 ()2-s2.0-85058781092 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Gallardo-Fernandez, G. L. & Saunders, F. (2018). “Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice”: Women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile. Maritime Studies, 17(2), 177-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice”: Women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile
2018 (English)In: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Global South are increasingly subjected to the internationalisation of food systems. Guided by a feminist political ecology approach, we examine how gender relations and power structures within SSF are changing through policy interventions and market linkages. Chilean women working in SSF have traditionally been unregistered direct producers. Since the early 2000s, however, women have formally entered as fishers within this hitherto male-dominated space. Today, women constitute almost a quarter of artisanal fishers in Chile. While women have become more visible, among others, in their engagement in territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs), little research attention has been paid to women’s roles within SSF. We redress this shortfall by examining the struggle to obtain TURFs by an all-women seaweed gatherers union in Coliumo (Bio-Bio Region, Chile). Using participatory research tools, we describe key gendered interactions and events over a local struggle for resources. Our findings show how closely related episodes of cooperation and conflict were involved in realising TURFs, which included differently-gendered relationships. While the women implicated in formalising fishing entitlements accrued individual benefit and enhanced their collective standing, the conflict left a deep scar among women in the community.

Keywords
Women seaweed gatherers, Gender, TURFs, Power struggles, Coastal resources, Community conflicts, Chile
National Category
Gender Studies Social Anthropology
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36552 (URN)10.1007/s40152-018-0110-z (DOI)000447526400007 ()2-s2.0-85055042237 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, 2015-05934International Social Science Council
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Blažauskas, N., Gee, K., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Joanna Piwowarczyk, J., . . . Jacek Zaucha, J. (2018). BONUS BALTSPACE: Deliverable 2.7: New generation EU Directives and the role of transnational coordination: Marine Spatial Planning of the Baltic Sea. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BONUS BALTSPACE: Deliverable 2.7: New generation EU Directives and the role of transnational coordination: Marine Spatial Planning of the Baltic Sea
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSP Directive) from 2014 is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room for adaptation to national contexts. Because of this larger room for adaptation, transposition becomes a process of designing domestic policy frameworks that fulfil the broad requirements of the Directive, rather than a simple and linear implementation procedure. However, allowing Member States to design marine spatial planning frameworks that fit domestic contexts, have thus far meant that regional coherence suffers. Although the pivotal role of transnational coordination is emphasised in the Directive, it does not stipulate how to set up such coordination, and the Member States have not yet been able to achieve much of self-organising in this area.A closer look is in this report taken on four policy-dimensions that are emphasised in the MSP Directive: Planning approach, Organisation, Sustainability, and Stakeholder inclusion. Based on in-depth case studies carried out in the BALTSPACE research project on MSP frameworks in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden, examples of coordination and coherency challenges are described and discussed for each dimension.It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially between neighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across country borders. Even though they share the same (EU) regulatory pressures, Latvia and Lithuania, for example, are developing national MSP frameworks based on quite different conceptual foundations. Whereas Latvia has taken the Ecosystem Approach as a point of departure for constructing a new MSP framework, Lithuania has instead chosen to adapt existing functional zoning approaches to management of maritime areas. Such diversity may be possible to explain because of differing domestic contexts, but may nevertheless lead to coordination problems when coordination is needed.Divergence between national MSP frameworks can also emerge from different political, jurisdictional and, administrative systems and traditions, that is, in societal organisation. In an example based on case studies undertaken in Denmark and Sweden, it is shown that degree of societal centralisation and distribution of political power can be related to differences in how environmental protection and blue growth are prioritised. However, it is difficult to tell whether diverging prioritisations have led to differences on organisation, or of it is the other way around, that differences in organisation have led to diverging prioritisations.It is stated in the MSP Directive that the overarching objective is to promote sustainable development. The focus on sustainable development can be said to reflect the Directive’s new generation characteristics. The concept of sustainable development is broad and imprecise, which facilitates political agreement. However, when more precise details must be addressed, disagreements may surface that make implementation challenging. In cases where neighbouring countries diverge substantially on how ecological, economic and social sustainable ought to be balanced, finding agreements on how to coordinate policies and practices, when needed, can be difficult. Based on case studies in Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden, it is, for example, argued that adoption of functional zoning or the Ecosystem Approach may not say much about how ecological, economic, and social dimensions are prioritised in different countries.Stakeholder consultations of some kind have historically been undertaken in all Baltic Sea countries. However, how such consultations have been undertaken, who have been invited, and the role the consultations play in relation to political decision-making differ, as shown in examples from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland. Because the MSP Directive is silent on how to design stakeholder consultations – it only says that they should be held – there is no political pressure on regional coordination. It is not clear from our data if these differences cause efficiency losses due to coordination deficits, but a reasonable assumption is that when, for example, marine natural resources are shared between two or more countries, jointly designed and undertaken consultations on specific transboundary issues potentially can promote transparency, understanding, and coordination.In conclusion, it is suggested that while regional coherency is often called for as a means to reduce inefficiencies, it might not be a good idea to integrate without discretion. Considering that the MSP Directive allows domestic context to matter when Member States design national MSP frameworks and that adaptation to domestic context is likely to reduce implantation gaps and increase the legitimacy of marine spatial planning, a more reasonable objective can be to embrace domestic diversity, while simultaneously adaptively promoting possibilities to solve coordination problems at lower levels, if they emerge or can be foreseen. From this perspective, increased coherence is a tool to reduce efficiency losses, rather than an intrinsic good.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2018. p. 27
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37205 (URN)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Local ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Archive number)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projects
BALTSPACE
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European StudiesSwedish Research Council FormasBONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Gee, K., Gilek, M., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Saunders, F., . . . Zaucha, J. (2018). Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence. Marine Policy, 92, 138-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence
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2018 (English)In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

Keywords
Baltic Sea Ecosystem approach Policy integration Marine spatial planning Stakeholder participation Social science Sustainable development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34804 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.002 (DOI)000430765100015 ()2-s2.0-85043975735 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Marine Spatial Planning in the Baltic Sea Region – Integrating Scales, Sectors and KnowledgeTowards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region, 185The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Gallardo Fernández, G. L. & Saunders, F. (2018). Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community. Agriculture, 8(2), Article ID 26.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community
2018 (English)In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The agri-pastoralist communities of the semi-arid region of Chile, with their unusual common land ownership, have not escaped economic neo-liberalism. The general pattern of insatiable demand of land for agricultural production, mining, energy generation and real-estate development has become a challenge for these communities. How are these processes affecting the traditional practices of these localized agri-food systems, based on rain-fed-agriculture, pastoralism and the fading practice of transhumance? In this article, we look at how the Huentelauquén Agricultural Community in the Canela Commune has dealt with, reacted to, and been affected by regional economic shifts geared towards market liberalization. In particular, we analyze the structural changes in the community in regard to alienation of the commons and changes in land tenure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants in this setting. To provide a richer contextual setting, this article draws on several other empirically-based works on the commons’ emergence and evolution, land commoditization and local struggles for livelihoods. Our study shows that a community can adopt different strategies when dealing with powerful sectoral development that can involve resistance as well as positioning that seeks to find favorable terms of engagement. Our findings highlight that processes affecting the traditional commons are resulting in the re-appropriation and re-occupation of the land. This is resulting in social differentiation, weakening of the community’s social bonds, depeasantization and further degradation of an already vulnerable ecosystem. In sum, these shifts are posing an existential threat to this form of traditional agri-pastoralism. 

Keywords
Adverse incorporation, Chile, Commons, Development, Dispossession, Enclosures, Neo-liberalism, Transhumance
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34696 (URN)10.3390/agriculture8020026 (DOI)000427503400009 ()2-s2.0-85042158801 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2166-5717

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