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Lehtilä, K., Vinter, T. & Dinnétz, P. (2020). Plant response to habitat amount and configuration in Swedish forests. Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, 26(3), 329-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plant response to habitat amount and configuration in Swedish forests
2020 (English)In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: There is an intense debate about whether habitat fragmentation has a negative or positive effect on biodiversity. We examined whether species richness and incidence of forest plants were negatively or positively associated with fragmented forest configuration. We also analysed whether the results support the fragmentation threshold hypothesis with fragmentation effects only in landscapes with small habitat amount.

Location: Sodermanland province, south-eastern Sweden (8,388 km(2)).

Methods: Data consisted of plant distribution maps and landscape data on forest amount and configuration in 2.5 km x 2.5 km quadrats. We carried out models including forest area together with clumpiness index (CL models) or edge density (ED models) as the measure of habitat configuration. We focused on plant taxa with positive association between incidence and forest area (163 taxa in CL models; 119 taxa in ED models).

Results: Responses to fragmented configuration were negative more often than by random (33 and 22 taxa in CL and ED models, respectively; includes only models without significant forest area x configuration interaction), whereas positive responses were rare (four taxa in both models). When forest area x configuration interaction was significant, the most common response had a negative effect of fragmented configuration when forest area was low and no effect of configuration when forest area was high, which agrees with the fragmentation threshold hypothesis. Species richness also had this type of response. In another common interactive response, the effect of fragmented configuration was negative at low forest area and positive at high forest area.

Main conclusions: Responses to fragmented forest configuration, when significant, were usually negative. When responses to fragmented configuration were modulated by forest area, they were negative when forest area was low. The findings of complex interaction between forest area and configuration have implications for selection of appropriate patch sizes in sustainable forest management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
clumpiness, critical thresholds, forest landscapes, fragmentation, habitat availability, habitat configuration, species incidence, species richness
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39784 (URN)10.1111/ddi.13019 (DOI)000504539600001 ()2-s2.0-85077183469 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Porsani, J., Caretta, M. A. & Lehtilä, K. (2019). Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty: findings from a case study in Mozambique. GeoJournal, 84(1), 215-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty: findings from a case study in Mozambique
2019 (English)In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 215-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The local implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), commonly referred to as land grabs, are at the center of an exponential production of scientific literature that only seldom focuses on gender. Our case study aims to contribute to filling this analytical gap. Based on structured interviews and focus groups, we investigate local experiences in the lower Limpopo valley in Mozambique, where a Chinese investor was granted 20,000 hectares in 2012. Our findings show that land access in the affected area varied prior to land seizure due to historical land use differences and after land seizure mainly due to non-universal compensation. Furthermore, we show that as farming conditions deteriorate, a trend toward both the feminization of smallholder farming and the feminization of poverty is consolidated. Succinctly, as available land becomes increasingly constricted, labor is allocated differently to alternative activities. This process is by no means random or uniform among households, particularly in a context in which women prevail in farm activities and men prevail in off-farm work. As men disengage further from smallholder farming, women remain directly dependent on fields that are smaller and of worse quality or reliant on precarious day labor in the remaining farms. We contend that the categories female-headed and male-headed households, although not inviolable, are useful in explaining the different implications of LSLAs in areas in which gender strongly substantiates individuals’ livelihood alternatives. © 2018 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Development studies, Female-headed households, Feminization of poverty, Gender, Land grabbing, Large-scale land acquisition, Mozambique’s Limpopo valley, Land use, Land acquisition, Mozambique, Mergers and acquisitions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34697 (URN)10.1007/s10708-017-9836-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042138941 (Scopus ID)
Note

Fieldwork for the study entitled “Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty: Findings from a case study in Mozambique” was funded by the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, and the foundation Forskraftstiftelsen Theodor Adelswärds Minne.

Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Kjellqvist, T., Rodela, R. & Lehtilä, K. (2019). Meeting the challenge of sustainable development: analysing the knowledge used to establish Swedish biosphere reserves. In: Maureen G Reed & Martin F. Price (Ed.), Unesco Biosphere Reserves: Supporting Biocultural Diversity, Sustainablity and Society (pp. 102-113). London & New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meeting the challenge of sustainable development: analysing the knowledge used to establish Swedish biosphere reserves
2019 (English)In: Unesco Biosphere Reserves: Supporting Biocultural Diversity, Sustainablity and Society / [ed] Maureen G Reed & Martin F. Price, London & New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 102-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the twenty-first century came with a new generation of biosphere reserves (BRs). Between 2005 and 2011 , five nomination forms for BRs were submitted to the Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme, hosted b the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for inclusion in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Interestingly, in all of these cases, actors at different leels mobbilized and collaborated to endorse the BR proposals. The inclusion of governmental and municipal autorities, civil society and in some cases the private sector, has provided an opportunity for inter-sectoral leaning on sustainable development. Two more nomination forms were submitted in 2018, both clearly showing that they had learned from previous nomination processes and from the actual implementation of the BRs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London & New York: Routledge, 2019
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39727 (URN)10.4324/9780429428746-8 (DOI)978-1-138-36932-0 (ISBN)978-1-138-36931-3 (ISBN)978-0-429-42874-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Lehtilä, K. & Dinnétz, P. (2017). Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region. In: Bali Swain, Ranjula (Ed.), Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics (pp. 155-171). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region
2017 (English)In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 155-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33360 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-56007-6_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034862960 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-56006-9 (ISBN)978-3-319-56007-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
Porsani, J., Börjeson, L. & Lehtilä, K. (2017). Land Concessions and Rural Livelihoods in Mozambique: The Gap Between Anticipated and Real Benefits of a Chinese Investment in the Limpopo Valley. Journal of Southern African Studies, 43(6), 1181-1198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Land Concessions and Rural Livelihoods in Mozambique: The Gap Between Anticipated and Real Benefits of a Chinese Investment in the Limpopo Valley
2017 (English)In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1181-1198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In rural Mozambique, as in other African countries, large-scale land acquisitions are on the rise. This process is usually portrayed by host governments and investors as comprising win–win deals that can simultaneously boost agricultural productivity and combat poverty. This article focuses on one such investment, a large-scale Chinese land acquisition in the lower Limpopo valley, where attempts to modernise agriculture have occurred since colonial times. Based on an analysis of primary quantitative and qualitative data, this study explores livelihoods in the targeted area and local experiences and views regarding land loss and its implications. Our findings reveal a top-down process enabled by disregard for sound legislation, whereby land dispossession was followed by ‘take-it-or-leave-it’ opportunities that were unsuited to the most land-dependent livelihoods, particularly those of single-headed households. As the modernisation of the region is once again attempted through the promotion of large-scale agriculture, important historical continuities prevail. This study adds critical evidence to the discussion on the local development potential of land deals in Mozambique and other areas marked by similar democratic deficits. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Development studies, community consultation, female-headed household, land grabbing, large-scale land acquisition, Mozambique, rural livelihood
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33588 (URN)10.1080/03057070.2017.1377932 (DOI)000415960000005 ()2-s2.0-85030561577 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
Lehtilä, K., Dahlgren, J. P., Garcia, M. B., Leimu, R., Syrjänen, K. & Ehrlén, J. (2016). Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.. Oecologia, 181(1), 125-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.
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2016 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, no 1, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29492 (URN)10.1007/s00442-016-3569-6 (DOI)000374564000012 ()26846312 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957593944 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-02-11 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Vinter, T., Dinnetz, P., Danzer, U. & Lehtilä, K. (2016). The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species. European Journal of Forest Research, 135(6), 1071-1082
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 1071-1082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To assess the effects of landscape configuration on local plant species richness, we tested whether local species richness of forest understory plants is affected by the total forest area and forest edge length in the adjacent landscape. We also tested whether the landscape effect on species richness is different for forest and edge species. We estimated species richness from 113 forest sites in four regions in Northern Europe. At each site, we studied two plots, one at the edge and one in the core of the forest. Total forested area and forest edge length in circles with a 1-km radius, together with plot-specific variables of environmental conditions and temporal continuity of forests, were recorded at each plot. The amount of forest and the length of the forest edge in the adjacent landscape had a significant positive effect on local species richness of all understory plant species. As expected, edge species were positively affected by increasing length of the forest edge in the landscape, but surprisingly there was no effect of forest area on species richness of forest species. Temporal forest continuity had a negative effect on species richness of edge species but no effect on species richness of forest species. Our results suggest that forest edge length had a stronger landscape effect on understory plant species richness than forest area. Implications of these findings for the management of forest landscapes depend on priorities given to different species groups in biodiversity conservation, i.e. if emphasis is in total species richness or species richness of forest or edge species.

Keywords
Landscape species pool, Spatial mass effect, Landscape configuration, Dispersal, Landscape heterogeneity, Edge effects
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30922 (URN)10.1007/s10342-016-0994-3 (DOI)000388105400006 ()2-s2.0-84988358448 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Landscape structure, patterns of biodiversity and conservation strategies in the Baltic Sea region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, E., Lindqvist, D., Dahlgren, H., Asplund, L. & Lehtilä, K. (2016). Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain. Chemosphere, 144, 1597-1604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain
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2016 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1597-1604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28740 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.024 (DOI)000367774400202 ()26517387 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84953790497 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European StudiesStockholm County Council
Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, E. & Lehtilä, K. (2015). Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes. Ecology and Evolution, 5(22), 5193-5202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes
2015 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 22, p. 5193-5202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tolerance to herbivory is an adaptation that promotes regrowth and maintains fitness in plants after herbivore damage. Here, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on tolerance can be different for different genotypes within a species and we tested how tolerance is affected by competitive regime and damage type. We inflicted apical or leaf damage in siblings of 29 families of an annual plant Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) grown at high or low competition. There was a negative correlation of family tolerance levels between competition treatments: plant families with high tolerance to apical damage in the low competition treatment had low tolerance to apical damage in the high competition treatment and vice versa. We found no costs of tolerance, in terms of a trade-off between tolerance to apical and leaf damage or between tolerance and competitive ability, or an allocation cost in terms of reduced fitness of highly tolerant families in the undamaged state. High tolerance bound to a specific competitive regime may entail a cost in terms of low tolerance if competitive regime changes. This could act as a factor maintaining genetic variation for tolerance.

Keywords
Cost of tolerance; crucifers; herbivory; plant competition; trade-off
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-16092 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1759 (DOI)000365761200004 ()30151123 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84947967988 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2012-04-20 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
König, M. A., Lehtilä, K., Wiklund, C. & Ehrlén, J. (2014). Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis. PLoS ONE, 9(6), e99333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99333-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-24208 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0099333 (DOI)000340721500015 ()24945875 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84903289518 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Landscape structrue, patterns of biodiversity and conservation strategies in the Baltic Sea region [A064-2007_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityCan Seed Banks facilitate the Conservation and Restoration of Species and Genetic diversity in Fragmented Semi-Natural Grasslands of the Baltic Sea Region? [23/2013_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0260-3978

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