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Bradshaw, Clare
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Bradshaw, C., Golz, A.-L. -. & Gustafsson, K. (2017). Coastal ecosystem effects of increased summer temperature and contamination by the flame retardant HBCDD. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 5(2), Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coastal ecosystem effects of increased summer temperature and contamination by the flame retardant HBCDD
2017 (English)In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 5, no 2, p. -20, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The combined effects of ocean warming and contaminants on marine ecosystems are poorly understood. In this study, we exposed model ecosystems comprising typical shallow coastal Baltic Sea communities to elevated temperature (+5 °C) and the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), both singly and in combination, for 13 days. Higher temperatures caused the release of PO4 from the sediment, which in turn stimulated the growth of the cyanobacteria Dolichospermum sp. This in turn led to an increase in the copepod Acartia bifilosa and other indirect effects in the plankton, interpreted as being caused by changes in predation, grazing, and competition. Elevated temperatures also stimulated benthic primary production and increased production of benthic mollusk larvae. Although increased temperature was the dominant driver of effects in these systems, HBCDD also appeared to have some effects, mainly in the zooplankton (both direct and indirect effects) and benthic meiofauna (an interactive effect with temperature). Although the study used model ecosystems, which are an approximation of field conditions, it highlights that interactive ecosystem effects between two stressors are possible and demonstrates the ecological and temporal complexity of such responses. Such unpredictable responses to warming and contaminants are a major challenge for ecosystem management to deal with multistressor situations in the Baltic Sea. 

Keywords
Baltic sea, Benthic-pelagic coupling, Brackish, Community ecology, Cosm, Flame retardant, Global warming, Indirect effects, Macoma balthica, Multiple stressors
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33520 (URN)10.3390/jmse5020018 (DOI)000423689700004 ()2-s2.0-85029397275 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2017-10-02 Created: 2017-10-02 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Bradshaw, C., Strid, A., von Stedingk, H. & Gustafsson, K. (2015). Effects of benthos, temperature and dose on the fate of HBCDD in experimental coastal ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34(6), 1246-1257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of benthos, temperature and dose on the fate of HBCDD in experimental coastal ecosystems
2015 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1246-1257Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the fate of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) added in a particulate suspension to experimental ecosystems assembled from brackish (Baltic Sea) coastal bays. Two experiments examined how A) benthic macrofauna (over 21 d), and B) increased temperature (14 d), affected HBCDD concentrations and fractionation of α, β and γ diastereomers in the water, sediment and biota. A third experiment (C) run over three seasons (231 d), studied the effect of HBCDD dose on the same endpoints. In all treatments of the three experiments, HBCDD partitioned mainly to the sediment, and this proportion increased with time. Presence of macrofauna tended to increase the HBCDD concentration in the sediment and decreased its concentration in the water. Increased temperature (+5 °C) decreased the amount of HBCDD in sediment and water but not in the filter- and deposit-feeding infaunal bivalves (Macoma balthica). The partitioning between water, sediment and biota was not concentration dependent. In all treatments, sediment became enriched in γ-HBCDD, M. balthica in α-HBCDD and water in α- and β-HBCDD. Bioaccumulation of HBCDD in M. balthica was high in all experiments (logBSAF > 1.25), the α diastereomer contributing the most (logBSAF 2.1 to 5.2). There is a risk of trophic transfer of HBCDD from benthic to pelagic food webs, and secondary poisoning of marine consumers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26532 (URN)10.1002/etc.2947 (DOI)000355152400007 ()25703626 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929840530 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Bradshaw, C., Näslund, J., Hansen, J., Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B., Sundström, B. & Gustafsson, K. (2015). Hexabromocyclododecane affects benthic-pelagic coupling in an experimental ecosystem. Environmental Pollution, 206, 306-314
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hexabromocyclododecane affects benthic-pelagic coupling in an experimental ecosystem
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 206, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant and a recognized PBT chemical. However, little is known about its effects on coastal species, and even less on ecosystem effects. We investigated the dose-response effects of HBCDD over 8 months in 1000 L experimental mesocosms assembled from coastal Baltic Sea ecosystem components. HBCDD was added via spiked plankton material and a range of structural and functional endpoints were measured during the experiment. Increasing HBCDD concentration decreased the biomass of large Macoma balthica, resulting in a decreased recirculation of nutrients to the water. Changes in plankton communities were also observed, either due to direct toxic HBCDD effects or indirect via changes in benthic-pelagic coupling of nutrients. Such complex ecosystem responses can only be quantified and understood by using realistic experimental set-ups, and including knowledge of system-specific ecological interactions. This is the first study of HBCDD effects on ecosystem level.

Keywords
Baltic sea, Brominated flame retardants, HBCDD, Indirect ecosystem effects, Mesocosm study, Structural equation modelling
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28180 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2015.07.012 (DOI)000366235700038 ()26219072 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937778260 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Thorsson, M. H., Hedman, J. E., Bradshaw, C., Gunnarsson, J. S. & Gilek, M. (2008). Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates. Marine Environmental Research, 65(3), 264-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates
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2008 (English)In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 264-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria > M. balthica > M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccurnulation of both metals and organic contaminants.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-5759 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2007.11.004 (DOI)000254821700005 ()18155760 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-39749189008 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 862/42/2005-9Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2005-1424
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Hedman, J. E., Bradshaw, C., Thorsson, M. H., Gilek, M. & Gunnarsson, J. S. (2008). Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 356, 25-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter
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2008 (English)In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-5730 (URN)10.3354/meps07218 (DOI)000254963900003 ()2-s2.0-42249101353 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Kumblad, L., Bradshaw, C. & Gilek, M. (2005). Bioaccurnulation of Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 in Baltic Sea benthos. Environmental Pollution, 134(1), 45-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioaccurnulation of Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 in Baltic Sea benthos
2005 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated Cr-51 Ni-63 and C-14 in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-5735 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2004.07.017 (DOI)000226351300006 ()15572223 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-9644267085 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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