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Lundmark, S. (2019). Learning Design: Empowerment and Participation in Children’s Creative Design Activities at the Design Lab. In: Proceedings of NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association. Paper presented at NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, March 6-8, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning Design: Empowerment and Participation in Children’s Creative Design Activities at the Design Lab
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper draws on data from a recent study of children’s design activities in a leisure time design lab setting. The notion of design lab has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development, such as educational or leisure time settings (see Kavousi & Miller, 2014). These labs are designate institutions dedicated to change and experimentation, or open collaborations between stakeholders, sharing a mutual interest in design research in a particular field (Binder & Brandt, 2008) to experience learning experiences based on self-reflection (Kavousi & Miller, 2014). However, the focus in this specific study is on how the children involved in the design activities make sense of their experiences of participating in the design lab after that the design lab has closed due to financial and administrative issues. 

Drawing on a six months ethnographical study, consisting of video and audio recordings of the design activities and interviews with the participating children, it has been possible to study both how the activities are structured, and how the participants make sense of the activities over time. An ethnomethodological approach is used as a means to explore the local practices of participation in the design activities from the members’ perspective (Button & Sharrock, 1996; Garfinkel, 1967; Luck, 2012). The participants’ involvement and reflections on the design activities are mainly performed in the studio setting when participating in design workshop but also in how they discuss their experiences in the interview material. The study addresses aspects of participation and empowerment in design activities (cf. Druin, 2002; Lundmark, 2016) and it is found that the design lab and its location, engagement, and emancipatory agenda are crucial for the children and their development of design knowledge and craftsmanship in the situated learning practice.

The findings show how the children involved in the activities at the design lab develop new skills and knowledge and how the children and young people's participation in various forms of design activities contribute to increased empowerment and empowerment. The study of the design activities in the suburb also demonstrate how these activities become important tools and resources to strengthen the youth in their identity creation. Furthermore, the study shows that the design activities that the children are committed to provide tools for changing their situation as well as their surroundings.

Keywords
participation, empowerment, agency, design lab, children, participative experiences
National Category
Pedagogy Learning Media and Communication Technology Design
Research subject
Studies in the Educational Sciences; Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37572 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, March 6-8, Uppsala, Sweden
Note

References

Binder, T. & Brandt, E. (2008). The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research, CoDesign, 4:2,115-129.

Button, G., & Sharrock, W. (1996). Project work: The organisation of collaborative design and development in software engineering. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 5(4), 369–386.

Druin, A. (2002) The role of children in the design of new technology. Behaviour and Information Technology, 21, 1-25

Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Kavousi, S. & Miller, P. (2014). The Community of Practice: Teaching pedagogy in the architecture Foundation Design Lab. Proc. of EDULEARN14, Barcelona, Spain.

Luck, R. (2012). ’Doing designing’: On the practical analysis of design in practice. Design Studies, 33(6), 521–529.

Lundmark, S. (2016). Designing for Online Youth Counselling: Empowerment through Design and Participation. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Education, Uppsala University

Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Kontio, J. & Lundmark, S. (2019). Narcissism or Masquerade? Selfies as Visual Communication in Vocational Education Classrooms. In: Proceedings of NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association. Paper presented at NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, March 6-8, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narcissism or Masquerade? Selfies as Visual Communication in Vocational Education Classrooms
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Being the third most popular platform among Swedish people as of 2018 (Internetstiftelsen, 2018), and the most used platform among Swedish teenagers (Statens Medieråd, 2017, p. 49), Snapchat use among Swedish youths has not been substantially investigated from discourse analytic perspectives (however, see Wickström, upcoming). The present study examines interactional aspects of Snapchat use by Swedish teenagers in a vocational school setting, based on a combination of video recordings of classroom activity and screen-recorded smart phone use.

The data for this article is drawn from a larger collection of video and screen recordings of youths’ smart phone usage in Swedish upper secondary schools (“Uppkopplade klassrum”, VR/UVK, Dnr 2015-01044) and consists of approximately 75 hours of recordings of students in two upper secondary classes; learners of hairdressing and building- and construction work.

Larsen & Sandbye (2013) suggest that we need to “look at photos not just as images but as material and social objects that mould and create identity and social relations between people”. Thus, we approach the images and interactions in the data by applying a framework inspired by the works of Erving Goffman on impression management (Goffman, 1990); specifically concerning interactional aspects of self-presentation and processes of situated identities.

The results from this study gives us important insights into digital youth culture in general, and more specifically about the very image loaded lives youths live, in and through their use of smartphones. The study goes in depth to show how the use of images is done in actual practice and when it occurs in interaction in an institutional setting. The use of selfies among youths has often been described as narcissistic (Sorokowski et. al., 2015), but by showing when and how the actual production and consumption of images is done, this study aims to differentiate and make visible the different kinds of actions made by the users; self-presentations, self-representations and masquerade, thus emancipating the youths and giving them a certain amount of agency. More specifically, we note that the use of smart phone cameras and images mirrors different aspects present in these vocational classroom cultures, as have been found by previous research (Nyström, 2012), and the anti-school culture that can be seen in these vocational education data stands in stark contrast to what can be found in similar data concerning upper secondary schools preparing for ensuing studies (Wickström, upcoming).

Keywords
visual communication, identity construction, vocational education, selfies
National Category
Pedagogy Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37576 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019: The Annual Conference of the Nordic Educational Research Association, March 6-8, Uppsala, Sweden
Note

References:

Goffman, E. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. (Reprt.) London [etc.]: Penguin books.

Internetstiftelsen. (2018). Svenskarna och Internet 2018. Stiftelsen för internetinfrastruktur. https://doi.org/978-91-85291-14-4

Larsen, J. & Sandbye, M. (eds.) (2014). Digital snaps: the new face of photography. London: I.B. Tauris.

Nyström, A. (2012). Att synas och lära utan att synas lära: en studie om underprestation och privilegierade unga mäns identitetsförhandlingar i gymnasieskolan. Diss. Uppsala : Uppsala universitet, 2012. Uppsala.

Sorokowski, Piotr & Sorokowska, Agnieszka & Oleszkiewicz, Anna & Frackowiak, Tomasz & Huk, A & Pisanski, Katarzyna. (2015). Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men. Personality and Individual Differences. 85. 10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.004.

Statens medieråd (2017). Ungar och medier 2017. Stockholm: Statens medieråd.

Wickström, P. (upcoming).

Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, S. (2018). Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design. Design Studies, 59, 77-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design
2018 (English)In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 59, p. 77-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article draws on data from a participatory design project developing services for online youth counselling. It investigates the outcomes and contingencies of participation for stakeholders (here counsellors) and how they make sense of their experiences of participating in a design project. The findings show how counsellors involved in a participatory design process develop new skills and knowledge as their roles and work practices in the project change overtime. The study is longitudinal, following a project that stretches over a period of three years, and addresses temporal aspects of participation, and in particular what happens when the design efforts come to an end and the designed service is launched. It is found that a participatory design project that fails with respect to its explicitly stated goals may still have positive secondary outcomes due to the engagement and process of situated learning among the participants involved.

Keywords
Participatory design project, secondary outcomes, transformative participation, participative experiences, online youth counselling
National Category
Pedagogy Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31313 (URN)10.1016/j.destud.2017.07.002 (DOI)000454968900005 ()2-s2.0-85026755027 (Scopus ID)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2016-10-15 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, S. & Evaldsson, A.-C. (2017). Click-guides and panic buttons: Designed possibilities for youth agency and user empowerment in online youth counselling services. Childhood, 24(2), 260-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Click-guides and panic buttons: Designed possibilities for youth agency and user empowerment in online youth counselling services
2017 (English)In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 260-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines how possibilities for agency are designed into online youth counselling services, as well as how such possibilities are addressed by young prospective users during the design of the services. The data are drawn both from the design of a national website for youth clinics in Sweden and from a design project developing e-services for local youth clinics in a Swedish municipality. The agency of young users is here treated as a key concern for understanding how user empowerment is accomplished through the design of websites and e-services. Using combined research materials (i.e. two websites and focus group meetings), this study demonstrates how design features may both facilitate and restrict young people’s involvement and control over sensitive and private issues. In addition, we demonstrate how the designed possibilities for empowerment may allow young users to critically approach and effectively use such services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Digital control, empowerment, focus group meetings, interaction design, online youth counselling services, privacy, website analysis, youth agency
National Category
Pedagogy Media and Communication Technology Human Aspects of ICT Human Computer Interaction Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30886 (URN)10.1177/0907568216656761 (DOI)000400911200009 ()2-s2.0-85019088696 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-18 Created: 2016-09-18 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Rosén, A., Lundmark, S., Jonsson, F. & Håkansson, J. (2017). Control and reward in online dating practices: a study of users’ experiences of Tinder. In: The 18th annual meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR 2017): Networked Publics. Paper presented at The 18th annual meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR 2017: Networked Publics Tartu, Estonia • 18 - 21 October 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control and reward in online dating practices: a study of users’ experiences of Tinder
2017 (English)In: The 18th annual meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR 2017): Networked Publics, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is based on a study of users experiences and practices of meeting potential new partners online through the use of the mobile dating service Tinder. The aim of the study is to explore how users experience design features and functionalities for online dating practices. By exploring the use of functionalities and features in the location-based mobile application Tinder, we offer a broad understanding of the relationship between designed functionalities and dating practices that users experience through these features. The empirical material presented in the paper is drawn from a study based on a mixed method approach, combining an initial observational study, an online survey, with focus group interviews. Four specific designed functions are highlighted in our empirical data: the connection with Facebook, the profile cards of users, the swipe-centered mutual match function, and geographical proximity. These functions contribute to the specific user experiences of control and reward. Our findings indicate that online dating practices are formed by an inseparable interplay of design functionalities, users attitudes and the use of specific mobile applications that taken together contributes to the overall online dating experiences.

National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33441 (URN)
Conference
The 18th annual meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR 2017: Networked Publics Tartu, Estonia • 18 - 21 October 2017
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, S. & Lymer, G. (2016). Analogies in interaction: practical reasoning and participatory design. Text & Talk, 36(6), 705-731
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analogies in interaction: practical reasoning and participatory design
2016 (English)In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 705-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examines a set of discussions among professional counselors in the area of youth counseling, as they participate in the development and design of an online video-mediated communication platform. With an overarching interest in how participatory design is performed through conversations, the analysis focuses on analogical reasoning through which the envisaged system is anchored to existing technologies and work practices. Three forms of analogical reasoning are identified: formulating design alternatives; challenging problem formulations; and telling stories. In various ways, these forms of analogical reasoning inform the ongoing design decision-making process, where the hypothetical technology and its organizational and work-related implications are evaluated. The study contributes to how analogical reasoning is done in interaction, and places the findings in the context of participatory design and studies of design reasoning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mouton de Gruyter, 2016
Keywords
analogical reasoning, participatory design, youth counselling, conversation analysis, ethnomethodology
National Category
Media and Communications Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31007 (URN)10.1515/text-2016-0031 (DOI)000387724800003 ()2-s2.0-84994388359 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-10-15 Created: 2016-10-15 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, S. (2016). Designing for Online Youth Counselling: Empowerment through Design and Participation. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for Online Youth Counselling: Empowerment through Design and Participation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

More and more people are using the internet to access various societal functions. In recent years, municipalities and private enterprises have increasingly begun to explore and develop internet-based services to support public health in general and to disseminate health information in particular. This compilation thesis consists of four articles that explore and provide different perspectives on the design and implementation of new online youth counselling services for public organisations and social services, working with counselling and health information for young people. Ethnographic methods, and materials from two empirical settings, have been used to investigate how aspects of design and participation can serve to empower both potential young users and counsellors as stakeholders in the design projects. An important secondary focus is how mechanisms of empowerment play out in the design of online counselling services targeting young people. The notion of empowerment is addressed in terms of empowerment through design, focusing on normative expectations regarding young people as users of online youth counselling, as well as how to work with norms and norm-critical perspectives in the design and development of user interfaces. Another aspect of empowerment concerns participation, here seeking an increased understanding of the processes, practices and shifting roles involved in engaging professionals and young users as participants in a design project. In order to address these interrelated areas of inquiry, an eclectic theoretical and methodological approach has been used to study design in practice. An ethnomethodological approach unpacks how the participants relate to and reflect upon the design projects under study, highlighting aspects of empowerment and user agency. In addition, a sociocultural perspective on communities of practice and participation is used to increase the understanding of what it means to be a participant in participatory design projects. The findings show how embedded social norms and values have implications for users’ identities as presented in the digital design of online youth counselling services. The findings also reveal ways in which user empowerment is facilitated but also restricted by the design of youth counselling e-services, including not only the designed multimodal features of such services, but also the norms that guide usage. The studies also address the outcomes of technological change and the implementation of sociotechnical systems and services for the professionals involved in design projects. Here the studies provide knowledge about the forms of practical reasoning the counsellors engage in when anticipating work-related issues associated with the new technology and how they might deal with potential challenges. Finally, the findings show how participation in a design project may enable the development of new forms of communities of practice in which the participants and their roles and participation status change as the organisation changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016. p. 140
Series
Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, ISSN 0347-1314 ; 140
Keywords
Empowerment, Participation, Design practice, Participatory design projects, Norm-critical design, Norms in design, Ethnography, Ethnomethodology, Online youth counselling
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31312 (URN)978-91-554-9725-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-02, Eva Netzelius, 10:K102, von Kraemers Allé 1A, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, F. & Lundmark, S. (2014). An interaction approach for norm-critical design analysis of interface design. In: CaTaC’14: Culture, Technology, Communication: Celebration, Transformation, New Directions [online proceening]: . Paper presented at CaTaC’14: Culture, Technology, Communication: Celebration, Transformation, New Directions, Oslo, June 19-20, 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An interaction approach for norm-critical design analysis of interface design
2014 (English)In: CaTaC’14: Culture, Technology, Communication: Celebration, Transformation, New Directions [online proceening], 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we argue for the need of a methodological framework for analysing the design of websites from a norm-critical perspective. Identifying some issues and challenges in previous studies on norms and values in interface design we suggest an approach for analysing norms in websites and user interfaces based on sociological and cultural perspectives on design. Approaching norms in interface design we understand design in terms of resources for interaction, involving four aspects of interaction: cultural representations, technology, interactivity, and context.

Keywords
norm-critical design, critical design, norms, visualization, interaction, context
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Human Computer Interaction Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-23492 (URN)
Conference
CaTaC’14: Culture, Technology, Communication: Celebration, Transformation, New Directions, Oslo, June 19-20, 2014.
Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-22 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Faber, A., Alexandersson, V. & Lundmark, S. (2014). Critical design goggles: Explorative use of critical design perspectives in a video production project. In: SIDER’14 Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, April 11-12, 2014.: . Paper presented at SIDER’14 Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, April 11-12, 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical design goggles: Explorative use of critical design perspectives in a video production project
2014 (English)In: SIDER’14 Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, April 11-12, 2014., 2014, p. -5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is built on a study that intends to develop a method by creating a set of tools based on selected parts from critical design and critical design theory. The goals of these tools are to function as instruments enabling practical implementation of critical design in a design and/or production process. In this study we develop the tools for critical design work and test our tools in a specific production process of a music video to explore how to apply critical design practically. Indoing so we used design-oriented research methods. By bringing together critical design perspectives and the practice of video production, this study wishes to contribute to the work of bridging the gap between theory and practice in critical design.

Keywords
Critical design, video production, design-oriented research method, goggles, defamiliarization, provocation, evaluation
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-23491 (URN)
Conference
SIDER’14 Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, April 11-12, 2014.
Note

On conference website

Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-22 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, S. & Normark, M. (2014). Designing Gender in Social Media: Unpacking Interaction Design as a Carrier of Social Norms. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 6(2), 223-241
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing Gender in Social Media: Unpacking Interaction Design as a Carrier of Social Norms
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, ISSN 2040-0748, E-ISSN 2040-0748, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we focus on interaction design as the practice of designing interactive and digital products, services, systems and/or environments. Of interest in the area of interaction design is people’s use of designed things, which also makes it relevant to relate interaction design to the social norms present in society, such as gendered norms. We present three different cases in which we have analyzed different aspects of interface design and put a specific focus on interaction design as a carrier of social and gendered norms. The first case concerns a qualitative study of how young girls interact with and present themselves in a photo blog website. The second case is a study of the way that young women entrepreneurs use the functionality of social media to mold an attractive online persona (an invented, or adjusted, character that one wants to put forward). The third case is based on a study of the development of the national youth counseling site in Sweden. By using the concepts of interference and social norms as analytic tools, we exemplify various ways in which social norms, such as gender norms, diversity, power relations, equality, marginalization, etc. are part of interaction design and how the interface design reinforces norms and provides a far from neutral arena. In this paper, gender is highlighted in relation to social norms and values in society and social expectations and hierarchies. On the basis of our findings from the three different cases, we argue that there is a need to unpack how digital design embeds gender norms and to demonstrate how the relationship between norms and design can be critically examined.

Keywords
interaction design, norm-critical design, gender, social norms, social media, web design
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-24386 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Projects
Construction and normalisation of gender online among young people in Estonia and Sweden. [A062-2008_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5627-2158

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