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Andersson, G. (2019). City tourist destination planning and visitor streams. In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde University. Paper presented at 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Roskilde, October 23-25, 2019. (pp. 43-44). Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>City tourist destination planning and visitor streams
2019 (English)In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, p. 43-44Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Destinations and their visitors are crucial to study in city tourism. Valls et al. (2013) proposed that identifying destination characteristics related to visitor segments and their holiday can help in the interpretation of contemporary urban tourism flows in Europe, facilitating city strategic planning in order to boost competitiveness. It is a challenge to identify the destination attributes and their benefits that the individual market segments value the most (Reisinger, Mavondo, & Crotts, 2009).

Within destinations in Sweden there is a lack of knowledge about visitor streams. For example, there are no available official statistics for detailed tourism streams in Stockholm (The statistical analyst at Swedish Agency for Eco­nomic and Regional Growth, 2018). The problem, though, is how qualitative information and statistics can be collected and analysed with the limited resources available. In addition, the statistics are too static, because they are not connected to a tourist’s whole trip. New approaches will be demanded for tourism statistics and study techniques. Exploring tourist spatial behaviour based on social media big data is a new research field (Tang & Li, 2015).

There is a discussion how to use mobile data points in Sweden in order to understand pattern of travel to destinations and concentration of people at a destination during a specific time. In addition, there are difficulties such as the lack of knowledge of a person's background. However, the use of mobile data and other Internet sources is rapidly developing.

The purpose of this study is how visitor streams can based on the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed in order to improve the destination by destination organisations? This is an ongoing research project about visitor streams.

This research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, tourist segments studies, in-depth interviews and a literature review. Statistical data and qualitative information in this research are used as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”.

The case study of the visitor segment “cruise passengers” to Stockholm has been chosen as an empirical example. During the high season, there could be between 2,000 and 16,000 cruise passengers in the centre of Stockholm on any given day. These sightseeing tours mostly use just three or five activity points, which are based on visitor attractions, restaurants, shopping, guided tours, outlooks and exploring independently. This means that a very small city area is used by cruise passengers.

 In order to develop the tourist products and marketing there is a need for the destination organisations to understand the most important tourist segments and their segment streams within the regional and local destinations, using statistics and qualitative indicators. For example, the DMOs and local incoming companies need to coordinate the marketing, attraction development and logistics regarding their cruise products in the central of Stockholm. The stream content could be: defined visitor segment, visitor data, spatial destination data such as points and routes, time information and tourism product. However, there is also a need for understanding overall city people streams in order to plan the city's infrastructure, where big data could be used. As a result this will hopefully improve the destination logistics and reduce overcrowding.

The streams can be of different types, which demand different investigation and presentation techniques. The cruise passenger’s visitor stream routes are of regular character. But the segment “private car travellers” are of irregular character, where the tourists can be analysed in visitor sectors connected to an investigation technique, when moving around individually.

Finally, this research propose the visitor stream concept and future research of various visitor segment streams and the city's people movement pattern. A basic method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: defining “regional and local destination” and its characteristics, investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, identifying important visitor segments, analysing segment streams and overall movement patterns of people with new destination tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University, 2019
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Business Administration
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39799 (URN)
Conference
28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Roskilde, October 23-25, 2019.
Available from: 2020-01-11 Created: 2020-01-11 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. & Abbasian, S. (2018). Analysis Dimensions of City Destination Character and Image Positioning. Almatourism, 9(17), 33-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis Dimensions of City Destination Character and Image Positioning
2018 (English)In: Almatourism, ISSN 2036-5195, Vol. 9, no 17, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

City tourism, with its unique character and image, has increased considerably over the last decades. At the same time, the complexity of destination development and image marketing has increased, and there is a lack of analysis tools for image positioning. The purpose is to investigate city destination image and character as prerequisites for destination mar­keting and development and how the image and character position can be analysed. City destination character, visitor destination image and visitor segments are used as the main theoretical framework.  An exploratory qualitative study approach has been chosen with an image case study of destination Stockholm. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the visitor segment international students and destination specialists. The study shows that desti­nation specialists have assessed a combination of city destination characteristic areas, which can be developed. Furthermore, visitors have a mind­set of several image aspects and holistic expressions for city destinations that can be used in destination marketing to change the current image position into the desired one. In order to determine a desired position, six analysis dimensions have been found useful: Desired positioning, Demand and supply, Visitor segmentation, Destination generalisation, Visit process and Expression type. The analysis dimensions are based on relevant dichotomous aspects. The effects of the used dimensions are called “positioning leverage effects”, and their main aim is to obtain a competitive advantage and to differentiate to other destinations.

 

Keywords
Destination Image; Destination Characteristics; Visitor Segments; Image Position; City Destination
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36047 (URN)10.6092/issn.2036-5195/8134 (DOI)000439489600004 ()
Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2018). Smart City Tourist Segmentation: How can aspects of heritage experience be used in city tourist segmentation?. In: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: 24-26 September 2018: UiT The Artic University of Norway, Alta, Norway: Book of Abstract. Paper presented at 27th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Alta, September 24-26, 2018. (pp. 70-70). Alta, Norway: UiT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart City Tourist Segmentation: How can aspects of heritage experience be used in city tourist segmentation?
2018 (English)In: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: 24-26 September 2018: UiT The Artic University of Norway, Alta, Norway: Book of Abstract, Alta, Norway: UiT , 2018, p. 70-70Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most tourists to Sweden come to urban areas, but a dilemma is that there is a lack of visitor attractions to offer experiences in the cities. Therefore, the shift from heritage being only preserved to also being experienced by different tourist segments is welcome.

Different tourist segments have their own unique heritage experiences. The “classical” experience aspects proposed by Pine & Gilmore (1999) can be used to explain the experience. However, special aspects of experience at heritage sites have been pointed out, such as Must See, Must Learn, Must feel and Must evolve (Poria, 2012).

Visit Sweden (2018) focuses on three tourist segments, such as Active family. Our empirical studies show that the experience-related motives of visit are somewhat different for these three segments. The study also shows that human senses are strongly connected to the experience, but the importance of the senses differ. Another empirical implication is that smart cities give prerequisites for what Mossberg (2007) call experiencescape.

The purpose of the present study is to clarify how tourists' experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and how this may be further applied in the market segmentation. An overall case study method will be used to study three maritime tourist attractions.

The research contribution is to show how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on that aspects of tourist experience can emerge from the sensory impressions (Agapito et. al, 2014). Ano­ther contribution is how these aspects of experience can be used in marketing segmen­tation using the smart city tourism concept. Finally, this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to market well-attended and efficiently marketed heritage attractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Alta, Norway: UiT, 2018
Keywords
City tourist segmentation, Human senses, Experience aspects, Heritage visitors, Smart city tourism
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39797 (URN)
Conference
27th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Alta, September 24-26, 2018.
Available from: 2020-01-11 Created: 2020-01-11 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. & Abbasian, S. (2017). City destination image- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image. In: Ioanna Farsari, PhD (Ed.), 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS. Paper presented at 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research 2017 (pp. 29-30). Dalarna, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>City destination image- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image
2017 (English)In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Ioanna Farsari, PhD, Dalarna, Sweden, 2017, p. 29-30Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract from the presentation of:

 

City destination image

- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image

 

Göran Andersson & Saeid Abbasian

Tourism Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden

Email: goran.andersson@sh.se

 

Destination Management Organisations (DMO) package the city image into a clear brand in order to attract foreign visitors (Eringa & Zhou, 2015). Still it is a complex task to analyse visitor segments' image experiences (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Unique characteristics of tourism destinations are exploited by DMO:s and tourism companies, such as their identity (Valls et al., 2012), in planning and marketing products for different visitor segments. Besides, big cities are typically more well-known and organised destinations which opens for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011).

The purpose of the research project is to investigate the characteristics and interconnected images of a city destinations; and visitor segments' experiences of city images based on image attributes. A multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose is used. The theoretical framework consists of city destination characteristics and images, image experiences, and visit motivators.

Typical characteristics and visitor segments were identified in the case of destination Stockholm in our pilot study. The results have been used in a qualitative investigation about the city image and its attributes, and also visitor's image expectations and experiences. Furthermore, an overall case study of Stockholm city will be conducted.

The knowledge contribution relates to new city destination characteristics connectivity to images. Furthermore, the image impact on visitor travel motivators before and after visiting the destination. A model will be developed about “visitors' image positions”, based on the visitors' assessment of destination image attributes. This knowledge will support tourism companies and DMO:s to develop image marketing tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dalarna, Sweden: , 2017
Keywords
Destination image, Destination characteristics, Visit motivator, Image marketing and City destination
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33853 (URN)
Conference
26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research 2017
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2016). An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 16(3), 195-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project
2016 (English)In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop an analysis model of a tourism department network using an explorative approach. Strategic stakeholders have been identified for the tourism department and organised into partner groups. An analysis model has been developed based on four network types: formal organisation, informal organisation, formal individual and informal individual. For every type, the following six network content dimensions were found relevant to analyse: stakeholders, reciprocal relations, relation exchange, network driving forces, network management and network purpose. The investigations have shown some focused network strengths such as network permanency, with corresponding weaknesses such as rigid relations. Some typical implications of the strengths and weaknesses for the department have been identified, and some network techniques to handle the implications have been proposed. An annual network development process for a tourism department is suggested. The resulting network is summarised as the Professional Tourism Academic Network (PTAN).

Keywords
community engagement, network strengths, network weaknesses, Networks, tourism department
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29944 (URN)10.1080/15313220.2016.1151399 (DOI)000408526100003 ()2-s2.0-84962594802 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2016). Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry. Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, 4(1), 5-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, ISSN 2286-3745, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In society today there is a heated debate about sustainable development. It is argued that event organisations must take responsibility for sustainability, although they may lack appropriate development tools. The purpose of this article is to study how event companies and organisations can develop a sustainability process in a societal system context and the need for certification in their events. The analysis was based on the study of relevant literature, an investigation in Sweden and a systems analysis. A triangulation technique was used to combine the different methods. It is argued that there is a sustainability event system in a societal context, within which event organisations have a central role. A model of sustainability and certification process for an event organisation and its events is developed, which consists of criteria, activities, certification, effects and obstacles. This recognised certificate could be a motivator and guideline for sustainable event development. The certification's focus has to be on the event organiser's management. However, event organisers need to certify their own organisations, either including all future events or only some specific events. This would give the organisations and the event industry a positive image and recognised role in a sustainable world.

Keywords
Sustainability, events; sustainability certification; Corporate Social Responsibility; event process.
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30265 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-10 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2016). Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?. In: Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland. Paper presented at 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Turku, September 28-30, 2016. (pp. 18-18). Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 18-18Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There has been a paradigm shift from heritage being only preserved, to also being shown as a tourist attraction. One of two diverse approaches amongst scholars to define heritage tourism is to use a visitor-experience perspective (Apostolakis, 2003). Different segments of tourists have their own unique experiences of the heritage. Specific aspects can be used to explain the experience, such as the “classical” aspects by Pine & Gilmore (1999). In addition, in the last few years other experience aspects have been identified, such as kick, comfort, competence and contact (Kairos Future, 2011). The concept of “the experience room” (Mossberg, 2003) is used to present an experience context. The assumption of this study is that the experience landscape is made up of perceptive signals that cover the human senses. Although one can ask how this approach supports the development of attractions. Cognitive and affective experiences were discussed at conferences on memory tourism in Estonia 2013-14, used in the pilot study to this research. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge about how tourist's experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and secondly, how the human senses influence the tourist's cognitive and affective experiences. An overall case study method will be used to study four maritime tourist attractions. The study consists of unstructured ethnographical interviews, experimental observation of tourists, and tourist's own evaluations during the experience. The research contribution is to shed light to how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on an analysis on whether tourist experience aspects can emerge from the sensory impressions of tourists' experi­ences (Agapito et. al, 2014). Another contribution is to figure out how the sense perception can be connected to affective and cognitive aspects that result in a joint experience of an attraction. The pilot study showed that enhanced customer investigations of tourist's experiences are needed, which will be further more analysed. In the end this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to generate innovative and well-attended heritage attractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi, 2016
Keywords
Tourist experiences, Heritage attraction development, Human senses, Experience aspects, Tourist investigations
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31187 (URN)
Conference
25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Turku, September 28-30, 2016.
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. & Abbasian, S. (2016). Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations. In: Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland. Paper presented at Nordic symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Turku, Finland, September 28-30, 2016. (pp. 19-19). Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 19-19Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

All tourism destinations have unique characteristics that constitute their identity (Valls et al., 2012). Tourism companies, in turn, exploit these when planning and marketing product concepts for different market segments. In recent decades, the cities in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) have undergone a change considering their profiles as more well-known tourism destinations. Meanwhile, even the degree of professionalism in the tourism industry has increased. This opens opportunities for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). In order to understand city tourism better a comparison between urban and rural tourism will be made. Each destination and the associated companies have to develop their products and marketing campaigns in order to effectively promote themselves to various tourist segments. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the characteristics of city destinations, and how tourist segments translate them into destination images, and further how the image influences motivations for travel choice. Our theoretical framework consists of city destination concepts, destination characteristics and images, tourist segments' motivations and destination branding. In our pilot study, typical characteristics and tourist segments were found in the case of destination Stockholm. This result will be used when investigating how different tourist segments translate characteristics to an image perception. The planned research will take a multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose. A case study of two typical BSR-cities will be conducted, using interviews, statistical data, web site analysis and destination document studies. The knowledge contribution relates primarily to new forms of city destination characteristics and their impact on visitor travel motivators. Furthermore, a model for investigating segments' “image positions” will be developed based on a new kind of demand of city tourism and a more professional tourism industry, even though it is a complex task to determine image positions (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Our hypothesis is that tourist segments are more interested in what city destination can offer today, but the supply side needs more knowledge how to influence the segments' travel motivators. We hope that the acquired knowledge will support destination organisations (DMO) and tourism companies to develop their tools for image marketing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi, 2016
Keywords
Destination characteristics, Tourist segments, Image position, Tourist motivator and Image marketing
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31188 (URN)
Conference
Nordic symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Turku, Finland, September 28-30, 2016.
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2016). Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism. In: Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli (Ed.), Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism (pp. 147-161). Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism
2016 (English)In: Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 147-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

City destinations are central in the study of tourism. But how can visitor streams related to the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed as a basis for improvement of the destination? This research used statistical data and qualitative information as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”. The research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, and a literature review. It resulted in the development of the visitor stream concept, which can be used in future research on the integration of various visitor segment streams. A method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: (1) defining “focused destination” and its characteristics, (2) investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, (3) identifying visitor segments, and (4) analysing streams with new destination tools. The knowledge gained will introduce and address new issues concerning statistics for measuring, monitoring and assessing the actual value of tourism, particularly urban tourism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Springer, 2016
Keywords
City destination, Destination characteristics, Visitor segment, Visitor stream, Visit statistics
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31191 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-26877-4_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85017075540 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-26876-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-26877-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G. (2015). Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations. In: Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir (Ed.), Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015. Paper presented at The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik, October 1-3, 2015. (pp. 113-113). Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations
2015 (English)In: Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015 / [ed] Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2015, p. 113-113Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a debate about responsible and sustainable development in tourist destinations. One could argue that event companies have a responsibility for sustainability, but they lack the analyses tools. The purpose is to investigate and analyse how companies working with events could develop a certification process of sustainability, and how decisions about an event’s sustainability certification could be supported. The analysis is based on both the study of relevant literature and investigations carried out and by using multi-criteria decision-making systems. A sustainable certification process is developed which consists of external company sustainability criteria, such as social, cultural, economic and ecological dimension, and also internal criteria such as using a sustainability plan. However, in this study certification obstacles have been found, for example certification costs. When developing the sustainability certification process a need is recognised for a decision support tool. Therefore a triangulation multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed consisting of six steps: 1. Problem formulation, 2. Computer criteria definition, 3. Definition of measures and rules, 4. Data collection and registering, 5. Total evaluation of the alternatives' results and 6. Final analysis and choice. When using the model there is a need for an integrated manual assessment by the evaluator and the computerbased expert system support. Therefore, triangulation of mainly qualitative research methods is used starting with qualitative interviews with an inductive approach by the evaluator, continuing with computer-based expert system analysis (the DEXi-system) with a logical interpretation approach and ending with the evaluator's deep interpretation of both manual and computer-based results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, 2015
Keywords
certification, event, sustainability, decision-making model
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30721 (URN)978-9935-437-37-2 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik, October 1-3, 2015.
Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2016-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3041-7467

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