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Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2019). The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective. Journal of quantitative criminology, 35(2), 287-312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective
2019 (English)In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 287-312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

Keywords
Bankruptcy fraud, Diffusion of fraud, Sweden, White-collar crimes
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34933 (URN)10.1007/s10940-018-9380-2 (DOI)000468597300004 ()2-s2.0-85045754876 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2018). Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–2010. Small Business Economics, 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–2010
2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

Keywords
Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy fraud, Destructive entrepreneurship, Sweden
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34934 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0043-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045625168 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Box, M. & Larsson Segerlind, T. (2018). Entrepreneurial Teams, Gender, and New Venture Survival: Contexts and Institutions. SAGE Open, 8(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial Teams, Gender, and New Venture Survival: Contexts and Institutions
2018 (English)In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The link between new venture survival and the presence of founding teams is investigated, in particular the effect of the gender composition of teams. Furthermore, we study venture survival, gender, and institutional change. A unique longitudinal database is employed, covering a large number of Swedish ventures established during 6 specific years, 1930-2005. These data capture the initial gender diversity of start-ups. The contextualization of entrepreneurship involves situational and temporal boundaries, and we elaborate on contextual factors at different levels of analysis. Our results show that ventures founded by teams have a higher probability of surviving, but show no overall team gender homogeneity/heterogeneity effect. However, we find some support for the fact that ventures founded by all-female teams have lower survival chances. Nevertheless, the clearest negative effect is found for female solo start-ups. Furthermore, our results support the fact that institutional transformation may gradually have increased the likelihood of ventures founded by females to survive. 

Keywords
context, entrepreneurial team, founding team, gender diversity, institutional transformation, institutions, longitudinal study, new venture survival, team composition, venture team
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36159 (URN)10.1177/2158244018777020 (DOI)000432276400001 ()2-s2.0-85049920387 (Scopus ID)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2018). Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder. Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, 3(1), 12-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder
2018 (Swedish)In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34763 (URN)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Local ID)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Archive number)2015/3.1.1/1322 (OAI)
Projects
Firm demography and entrepreneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Box, M. (2017). Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 2012. Business History, 56(5), 710-743
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 2012
2017 (English)In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 710-743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses long-term business entry in the Swedish brewing industry, presenting new data on its organisational historiography. Since 1830, the rate of entry has varied considerably; entries increased progressively from the 1850s, and fell at a decreasing rate from the early twentieth century. An increasing tendency to enter the trade can be observed from the mid-1980s – in particular, there has been a considerable resurgence since the turn of the millennium. The article elaborates on explanations that are both exogenous and endogenous. Above all, the results provide support for the role of endogenous conditions. The results should be viewed as complementary to previous analyses of the (Swedish) brewing industry, which either have employed shorter analytical time-frames or have mainly focused on the role of exogenous conditions, such as changes in the institutional framework.

Keywords
brewing industry, Business entry, entrepreneurship, industrial resurgence, industry development, Sweden
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32027 (URN)10.1080/00076791.2016.1269751 (DOI)000401195600004 ()2-s2.0-85010700256 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lönnborg, M. & Rytkönen, P. (2017). From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla. In: : . Paper presented at 21th Annual European Business History Association (EBHA), 24-27 August, Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33534 (URN)
Conference
21th Annual European Business History Association (EBHA), 24-27 August, Vienna, Austria
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 2996/3.1.1/2016
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Box, M. & Larsson Segerlind, T. (2017). Genus och grundarteam: nya företags överlevnad i Stockholm under 1900-talets första hälft. YMER, 136(2016), 51-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genus och grundarteam: nya företags överlevnad i Stockholm under 1900-talets första hälft
2017 (Swedish)In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 51-78Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi (SSAG), 2017
National Category
Economic History Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32516 (URN)978-91-982150-2-1 (ISBN)
Note

Årsbokstitel: Genus och företagande. ISBN 978-91-982150-2-1

Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2017). New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results. International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship (4), 431-464, Article ID 1567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results
2017 (English)In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, p. 431-464, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

Keywords
firm entry; survival; founding conditions; contemporaneous conditions; Sweden JEL-codes: L25, L26, C14, C41
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33893 (URN)000423944000003 ()2015/3.1.1/1322 (Local ID)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Archive number)2015/3.1.1/1322 (OAI)
Projects
Firm demography and entrepreneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2016). Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010. Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift (1), 20-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010
2016 (Swedish)In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Handelshögskolan vid Karlstads universitet, 2016
Keywords
konkurs, insolvens, konjunktur, ekonomisk tillväxt
National Category
Law and Society Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30938 (URN)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lin, X. & Gratzer, K. (2016). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000 (1ed.). In: Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema (Ed.), Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth (pp. 31-49). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000
2016 (English)In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Keywords
Entrepreneurship, Self-employment, Economic growth, Granger causality, Sweden
National Category
Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30319 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-28134-6_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978199995 (Scopus ID)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)978-3-319-28132-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-28134-6 (ISBN)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries [P12-1122:1_RJ]; Södertörn UniversityApplication for financial support, international workshop held at Södertörn University, May 28-29, 2015 [F15-0122:1_RJ]; Södertörn UniversityFirm demography and entrepeneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region [63/2015_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityA Contemporary Business History of the Dairy Industry – Processes of Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Internationalization in the Baltic Sea Region, 1989-2018 [41/2016_OSS]; Södertörn University; Publications
Box, M., Lönnborg, M. & Rytkönen, P. (2017). From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla. In: : . Paper presented at 21th Annual European Business History Association (EBHA), 24-27 August, Vienna, Austria.
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0426-7936

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