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Gee, K., Blazauskas, N., Dahl, K., Göke, C., Hassler, B., Kannen, A., . . . Zaucha, J. (2019). Can tools contribute to integration in MSP?: A comparative review of selected tools and approaches. Ocean and Coastal Management, 179, 1-11, Article ID 104834.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can tools contribute to integration in MSP?: A comparative review of selected tools and approaches
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 179, p. 1-11, article id 104834Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of tools and approaches is currently much debated in maritime spatial planning (MSP). Past evaluation has mainly concentrated on decision support tools and the tangible outputs these can provide for MSP, but little attention has so far been been given to the soft or indirect benefits tool use can have in MSP. This paper assesses the potential benefits of tool use in the context of four common integration challenges in MSP. Drawing on case study material from the Baltic Sea region, the paper reviews the potential contribution of five selected tools and approaches to multi-level and transboundary, policy and sector, stakeholder and knowledge integration. Specific end points are defined for each integration challenge, including general desired outcomes of integrated MSP processes as a template for assessment. Our review shows that the selected tools play different roles in moving towards the various end points of MSP integration. There is an important difference between the potential of each tool, or its inherent capacity, and how it is applied, e.g. in a participative or non-participative setting. Another lesson is that some integration benefits can be achieved by the tools alone, while others – often secondary benefits - depend on how the outcomes of tool use are taken up by the subsequent MSP process. Although the nature of a tool does restrict its potential contribution to MSP integration challenges, the secondary “soft” benefits that can be achieved through certain styles of application and good links to the MSP process can add important integration benefits up and beyond the tool itself. The results presented here may also be relevant to other types of spatial planning and conservation management.

Keywords
Maritime spatial planning Integration challenges Tools and approaches Direct and indirect benefits
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38343 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104834 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067180409 (Scopus ID)
Projects
BaltSpace
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasBONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region, 185
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Gilek, M., Jönsson, A. M. & Saunders, F. (2019). Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report. Huddinge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: , 2019. p. 76
Series
Working Paper, ISSN 1404-1480 ; 2019:1
Keywords
Environmental governance, regional cooperation, eutrophication, fisheries, Baltic Sea
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37847 (URN)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-04-25
Saunders, F., Gilek, M., Day, J. C. C., Hassler, B., McCann, J. & Smythe, T. (2019). Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings. Ocean and Coastal Management, 169, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
marine spatial planning, integration, sectors, stakeholders, knowledge, policy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36931 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.11.011 (DOI)000459518700001 ()2-s2.0-85058030474 (Scopus ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Local ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Archive number)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projects
BALTSPACE
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea regionThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

This article develops an integration framework to analyse MSP practices across several Baltic Sea Region cases studies as well as cases studies from Australia (Great Barrier Reef) and the US (Rhode Island). While integration has been universally adopted as a policy principle to strive for, there is confusion about what it means, how to do it and what it implies in different MSP contexts. The task set here was not to fix a singular meaning to integration and what work it should do in MSP, but to better understand particular uses of the concept and their purposes in MSP practices. To do we consider existing literature to develop a five-part analytical framework, which includes cross-border, policy/sector, knowledge, stakeholder and temporal integration dimensions. The framework was applied to the several cases and usefully illustrated a variety of integration-related MSP questions, challenges and responses. Furthermore, we argue that an analytical focus on the multidimensionality of integration can help shed light on the various ‘balances’ related to sustainability commonly sought after in MSP – between environmental protection and maritime development; between strategic decision-making and participation; between scientific and experiential knowledge; on current problems and a concern for the future, among others.

Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Piwowarczyk, J., Gee, K., Gilek, M., Hassler, B., Luttmann, A., Maack, L., . . . Zaucha, J. (2019). Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles. Ocean and Coastal Management (175), 98-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 175, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37988 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.03.023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064041176 (Scopus ID)
Projects
BaltSpace
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Blažauskas, N., Gee, K., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Piwowarczyk, J., . . . Zaucha, J. (2019). New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning. Ocean and Coastal Management (169), 254-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning
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2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 169, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EU MSP Directive is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room foradaptation to national contexts. The main objective in this article is to identify and analyse potential obstacles toeffective and efficient planning caused by the diversity among national MSP frameworks that the Directive'sbroad regulatory boundaries have led to. It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially betweenneighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across national borders. Divergence betweennational MSP frameworks can also emerge from how political, jurisdictional and, administrative systemsand traditions are organised in different Member States. It is shown that neighbouring countries can divergesubstantially in how the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability are balanced, which canmake transnational coordination challenging. Furthermore, it is shown that stakeholder consultations differamong Member States in terms of, for example, who were invited, how the consultations were undertaken, andthe role they play in relation to political decision-making. Because of these, and other differences in how MSPframeworks are being developed in the Member States, it is suggested that regional integration should bepromoted with discretion. From this perspective, it seems reasonable to embrace diversity, while simultaneouslypromoting the adaptive management of coordination problems at lower levels, when, or if, they emerge or canbe foreseen. Thus, increased integration of national MSP frameworks should be viewed as an instrument toreduce concrete efficiency losses, rather than as an intrinsic good.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Baltic sea, Sustainability, Ecosystem approach, Context-dependence, Transnational integration, Marine spatial planning, Stakeholder participation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37168 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.12.025 (DOI)000459518700026 ()2-s2.0-85059465398 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-01-05 Created: 2019-01-05 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Gee, K., Gilek, M., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Saunders, F., . . . Zaucha, J. (2018). Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence. Marine Policy, 92, 138-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence
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2018 (English)In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

Keywords
Baltic Sea Ecosystem approach Policy integration Marine spatial planning Stakeholder participation Social science Sustainable development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34804 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.002 (DOI)000430765100015 ()2-s2.0-85043975735 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Marine Spatial Planning in the Baltic Sea Region – Integrating Scales, Sectors and KnowledgeTowards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region, 185The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hassler, B., Blažauskas, N., Gee, K., Gilek, M., Janßen, H., Luttmann, A., . . . Zaucha, J. (2017). BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 69
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34036 (URN)
Projects
Towards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Saunders, F., Gilek, M., Gee, K., Hassler, B., Luttmann, A., Morf, A. & Zaucha, J. (2017). BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 37
Keywords
Baltic Sea; evaluation; integration; marine spatial planning; sustainability; good governance; social science; deliberation; reflexivity
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34034 (URN)
Projects
Towards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Saunders, F., Gilek, M., Gee, K., Dahl, K., Hassler, B., Luttmann, A., . . . Zaucha, J. (2017). BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 36
Keywords
Baltic Sea; ecosystem approach; knowledge integration; Marine spatial planning; scientific knowledge; social learning; social science
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34035 (URN)
Projects
Towards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Zaucha, J., Gilek, M., Hassler, B., Luttmann, A., Morf, A., Saunders, F., . . . Turski, J. (2017). BONUS Policy Brief: Challenges and Possibilities for MSP integration in the Baltic Sea. Gdansk: Marine Institute in Gdansk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BONUS Policy Brief: Challenges and Possibilities for MSP integration in the Baltic Sea
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gdansk: Marine Institute in Gdansk, 2017. p. 7
Keywords
Marine Spatial Planning; marine governance; marine and coastal management
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34042 (URN)
Projects
Towards sustainable planning of Baltic marine space (BONUS BALTSPACE)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Projects
Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea (RISKGOV). [A032-2008_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityCooperating for sustainable regional marine governance - The case of fisheries and nutrient run-off from agriculture to the Baltic Sea [A043-2012_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityMarine Spatial Planning in the Baltic Sea Region – Integrating Scales, Sectors and Knowledge [27/2014_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5040-4917

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