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Horbyk, R. (2019). In pursuit of Kairos: Ukrainian journalists between agency and structure during Euromaidan. Baltic Worlds, XII(1), 4-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In pursuit of Kairos: Ukrainian journalists between agency and structure during Euromaidan
2019 (English)In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. XII, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, I examine the role of journalists during Euromaidan in November 2013–February 2014. The conceptualization of a specific case of power, the media power (found in works by Bolin, Couldry, Curran, Hjarvard, Mancini, Zelizer, and others) basically oscillates between two extremes – that of regarding the media as heteronomous of the political field and that of arguing that the media increasingly influence other fields through processes of mediatization. What is the role of journalists in power relations? Under which conditions is the power of journalists – and their agency – likely to grow? This article presents the results of a series of interviews with Ukrainian journalists who covered the events of Euromaidan in different capacities. Validated with other evidence, their narratives suggest a positive power dynamic for the Ukrainian journalists during the protest events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Södertörns högskola, 2019
Keywords
media, power, journalists, mediatization, Euromaidan, Ukraine
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37944 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R., Prymachenko, Y. & Yurchuk, Y. (2019). Shared history in shattered spaces: Mediatisation of historical scholarship in Ukraine and broader Eastern Europe. Ideologies and Politics, 3(14), 129-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared history in shattered spaces: Mediatisation of historical scholarship in Ukraine and broader Eastern Europe
2019 (English)In: Ideologies and Politics, ISSN 2227-6068, Vol. 3, no 14, p. 129-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article focuses on the increasing adoption of media logic and the corresponding change of habitus in the field of academic history in Eastern Europe, with a particular focus on Ukraine. Departing from both mediatisation theory and memory studies, authors consider a range of relevant phenomena from across the region, before considering in more depth the case of LikBez, a grassroot initiative of Ukrainian historians, aimed at debunking historical myths spread both inside and outside Ukraine. The amalgamation of historical knowledge and multiple media platforms to convey it, it is argued, ushers in the era of mediatisation of history. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Foundation for Good Politics, 2019
Keywords
mediatization, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, historiography
National Category
History Media Studies
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Historical Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-40320 (URN)
Available from: 2020-03-05 Created: 2020-03-05 Last updated: 2020-04-03Bibliographically approved
Grant, G., Horbyk, R. & Podolian, O. (2017). [A review of] Colby Howard & Ruslan Pukhov (eds), Brothers Armed: Military Aspects of the Crisis in Ukraine. Second Edition [Review]. Europe-Asia Studies, 69(10), 1678-1680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>[A review of] Colby Howard & Ruslan Pukhov (eds), Brothers Armed: Military Aspects of the Crisis in Ukraine. Second Edition
2017 (English)In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 1678-1680Article, book review (Other academic) Published
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34257 (URN)10.1080/09668136.2017.1401823 (DOI)000423279400018 ()
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2017). Mediated Europes: Discourse and Power in Ukraine, Russia and Poland During Euromaidan. (Doctoral dissertation). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mediated Europes: Discourse and Power in Ukraine, Russia and Poland During Euromaidan
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on mediated representations of Europe during Euromaidan and the subsequent Ukraine–Russia crisis, analysing empirical material from Ukraine, Poland and Russia. The material includes articles from nine newspapers, diverse in terms of political and journalistic orientation, as well as interviews with journalists, foreign policymakers and experts, drawing also on relevant policy documents as well as online and historical sources.

The material is examined from the following vantage points: Michel Foucault’s discursive theory of power, postcolonial theory, Jürgen Habermas’s theory of the public sphere, Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, Jacques Derrida’s hauntology and Ernesto Laclau’s concept of the empty signifier. The methods of analysis include conceptual history (Reinhart Koselleck), critical linguistics and qualitative discourse analysis (a discourse-historical approach inspired by the Vienna school) and quantitative content analysis (in Klaus Krippendorff’s interpretation).

The national narratives of Europe in Ukraine, Russia and Poland are characterised by a dependence on the West. Historically, these narratives vacillated between idealising admiration, materialist pragmatics and geopolitical demonising. They have been present in each country to some extent, intertwined with their own identification.

These discourses of Europe were rekindled and developed on during Euromaidan (2013–2014). Nine major Ukrainian, Russian and Polish newspapers with diverse orientations struggled to define Europe as a continent, as the EU or as a set of values. Political orientation defined attitude; liberal publications in all three countries focused on the positives whereas conservative and business newspapers were more critical of Europe. There were, however, divergent national patterns. Coverage in Ukraine was positive mostly, in Russia more negative and the Polish perception significantly polarised.

During and after Euromaidan, Ukrainian journalists used their powerful Europe-as-values concept to actively intervene in the political field and promote it in official foreign policy. This was enabled by abandoning journalistic neutrality. By comparison, Russian and Polish journalists were more dependent on the foreign policy narratives dispensed by political elites and more constrained in their social practice.

Abstract [sv]

Denna studie undersöker hur Europa framställs i medier under Euromajdan och den efterföljande ukrainska-ryska krisen genom att analysera empiriskt material från Ukraina, Polen och Ryssland. Materialet omfattar artiklar från nio tidningar med olika politisk och journalistisk orientering samt intervjuer med journalister, diplomater och utrikespolitiska experter. I analysen ingår även relevanta politiska dokument, historiska texter och webbkällor.

Materialet studeras utifrån en kombination av olika teoriperspektiv: Michel Foucaults diskursiva maktteori, postkolonial teori, Jürgen Habermas offentlighetsteori, Pierre Bourdieus fältteori, Jacques Derridas ”hauntology” och Ernesto Laclaus begrepp ”empty signifier”. Analysmetoderna omfattar begreppshistoria (Reinhart Koselleck), kritisk lingvistik samt kvalitativ diskursanalys (diskurshistorisk metod inspirerad av Wienerskolan) och kvantitativ innehållsanalys (i Klaus Krippendorffs tolkning).

Historiskt karakteriseras Europaberättelserna i de tre länderna av det starka beroendet av Västeuropa, vilket reaktivt leder till perioder då Väst förkastas. Berättelserna rör sig mellan tre huvudpoler: idealiserande beundran, materialistisk pragmatism och geopolitisk demonisering. De är inte fast knutna till ett visst land utan har i skiftande grad varit närvarande i dem alla. Dock har svagare aktörer haft en idealiserande tendens eftersom Europa uppfattas som en källa till viktiga teknologier och moderna samhällsfunktioner. Författare i alla tre länderna hade svårigheter att definiera Europas gränser och eftersom detta problem kopplades till ländernas egna nationella identifikation brukar europeiskhet konstrueras som en våg som successivt försvagas ju vidare den sprids mot öster från sitt epicentrum någonstans i Nordvästeuropa.

Dessa berättelser har reaktiverats och vidareutvecklats under 2013–2014. I de analyserade tidningarna uppfattas Europa ofta som en kontinent (främst i Polen) eller identifieras med EU (särskilt i Ryssland och Ukraina), men det är också vanligt att använda Europa som uttryck för en uppsättning värden (mindre vanligt i Polen och mest vanligt i Ukraina). Ideologiskt fokuserar de liberala tidningarna i alla tre länderna positiva värden medan konservativa tidningar och finansblad associerar Europa med negativa vär- den. Bland de positiva värdena dominerar de humanistiska i de ukrainska tidningarna och de rationalistisk-teknokratiska i det ryska urvalet. Den ukrainska pressen har mest positiv bevakning av Europas framgångar medan den ryska pressen innehåller mest av negativ bevakning där Europa ses som fiende och förlorare. Ukrainska och ryska diskurser skiljer sig mycket åt i frågan om det egna landet bör genomföra europeiska reformer (Ukraina) eller ej (Ryssland). Den polska bevakningen polariseras mellan positiva och negativa värden.

Under och efter Euromajdan använde ukrainska journalister det kraftfulla begreppet om värdenas Europa för att intervenera i det politiska fältet och rekontextualisera denna Europaberättelse som den officiella utrikespolitikens berättelse. Detta blev paradoxalt möjligt tack vare den svaga professionaliseringen som tillät journalisterna att tillfälligt överge sin journalistiska neutralitet. I kontrast mot Ukraina begränsade Rysslands starka objektivitetsdiskurs journalisterna i deras sociala och politiska praktik. Där var det snarare den officiella politiska diskursen som övertogs och rekontextualiserades av medierna. Polska journalister var osäkra på sitt eget inflytande och arbetade i en cirkelrörelse där diskurser från mediesfären rekontextualiserades i det politiska fältet och omvänt.

Abstract [uk]

Ця студія присвячена медіярепрезентаціям Европи під час Евромайдану та дальшої українсько-російської кризи, аналізуючи емпіричний матеріял з України, Польщі й Росії. Отой матеріял охоплює статті з дев’яти розмаїтих своєю політичною і журналістською орієнтацією газет, а також інтерв’ю з журналістами, дипломатами та експертами зі зовнішньої політики, користаючи при тім із доречних політичних документів, онлайнових та історичних джерел.

Матеріял розглянуто з перспективи дискурсивної теорії влади Мішеля Фуко, постколоніяльної теорії, теорії громадськости Юрґена Габермаса, теорії полів П’єра Бурдьє, “hauntology” Жака Дерріди та поняття «порожнього означника» Ернеста Лякляу. Методи аналізу охоплюють історію понять (Райнгарт Козелек), критичну лінґвістику та якісний дискурс-аналіз (дискурсивно-історичний підхід підо впливом Віденської школи) і кількісний контент-аналіз (в інтерпретації Клявса Кріппендорфа).

Історично національним наративам Европи у цих трьох країнах притаманна залежність від Заходу, яка також стимулює періоди його відштовхування. Ті наративи вагаються між трьома головними полюсами: захопленого ідеалізму, матеріялістичного прагматизму та геополітичного очорнення. Вони не є винятково притаманними якійсь одній країні і певною мірою присутні в кожній. Проте слабші актори схильні до ідеалізації, бо Европу сприймають за джерело важливого технологічного й соціяльного інструментарію. Авторам в усіх трьох країнах трудно визначити межі Европи, і, тимчасом як ця проблема переплелася була з їхньою власною ідентифікацією, европейськість зазвичай конструйовано на кшталт хвилі, що згасає в міру руху на Схід од епіцентру, розташованого десь ото в Північно-Східній Европі.

Оці дискурси посилилися й розвинулися в 2013 – 2014 рр. В аналізованих газетах Европу асоціюють із цілим континентом (найчастіше в Польщі) або з ЕС (у Росії та в Україні), але розповсюджена й схема, де Европу використано на позначення певного набору вартостей, зрідка в Польщі, але найчастіше в Україні. Ідеологічно ліберальні видання в усіх трьох країнах зосереджені на позитивних вартостях, тоді як консервативні та бізнесові газети схиляються до неґативних. Серед позитивних якостей в українських газетах переважають гуманістичні, тоді як раціонально-технократичні типові для російської вибірки. Українська преса має найбільше позитивного висвітлення успішної Европи, а російські газети мають найбільше з усіх неґативного (Европа як ворог чи невдаха). Українські та російські дискурси найдужче різняться щодо того, чи своя країна мусить здійснювати европейські реформи (Україна) а чи ні (Росія). Польське висвітлення розривається межи позитивними а негативними вартостями.

Під час та після Евромайдану українські журналісти використали впливове поняття Европи яко гуманістичних вартостей, щоб активно втрутитися в політичне поле й реконтекстуалізувати цей наратив Европи як офіційний наратив зовнішньої політики держави. Цьому парадоксально сприяла слабка професіоналізація, що дозволяє іґнорувати вимогу неупереджености. Порівняно з цим, потужний дискурс газетярської об’єктивности в Росії стримує журналістів у репертуарі соціяльної дії, відтак то радше медії реконтекстуалізують офіційний дискурс. Польські ж газетярі, непевні щодо власного впливу, працюють у замкненому колі, де політичне поле реконтекстуалізує наративи медіясфери і навпаки.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 404
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 149
Keywords
media, discourse, power, postcolonial theory, foreign policy, journalists, politicians, Europe, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Euromaidan, медії, дискурс, влада, зовнішня політика, журналісти, політики, Европа, Україна, Росія, Евромайдан, medier, diskurs, makt, utrikespolitik, journalister, politiker, Europa, Ukraina, Ryssland, Polen, Euromajdan
National Category
Media Studies Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) History
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33726 (URN)978-91-88663-26-9 (ISBN)978-91-88663-27-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-15, MB 503, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2017). Narratives at war: Representations of Europe in news media of Ukraine, Russia and Poland during Euromaidan. In: Johan Fornäs (Ed.), Europe Faces Europe: Narratives From Its Eastern Half (pp. 93-132). Bristol: Intellect Ltd.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narratives at war: Representations of Europe in news media of Ukraine, Russia and Poland during Euromaidan
2017 (English)In: Europe Faces Europe: Narratives From Its Eastern Half / [ed] Johan Fornäs, Bristol: Intellect Ltd., 2017, p. 93-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Intellect Ltd., 2017
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32521 (URN)1552/42/2011 (Local ID)9781783207510 (ISBN)1552/42/2011 (Archive number)1552/42/2011 (OAI)
Projects
Narratives of Europe
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1552/42/2011
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. & Palko, O. (2017). Righting the writing. The power dynamic of Soviet Ukraine language policies and reforms in the 1920s-1930s. Studi Slavistici, 14, 67-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Righting the writing. The power dynamic of Soviet Ukraine language policies and reforms in the 1920s-1930s
2017 (English)In: Studi Slavistici, ISSN 1824-761X, E-ISSN 1824-7601, Vol. 14, p. 67-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Righting the Writing. The Power Dynamic of Soviet Ukraine Language Policies and Reforms in the 1920s-1930s The first post-revolutionary decades became decisive for the development of the Ukrainian language, national culture and identity. The Ukrainian language, previously subject to a number of bans, finally entered the stage of intensive status and corpus planning. Thanks to this, it became a decisive factor in the rivalry between different forms of statehood vying on the Ukrainian territory after 1917. At the same time, the status upgrade and broader public use called for the standardisation of the language. The first practical steps towards the unification of different orthographic traditions were undertaken from 1918 to 1921. The turbulence of civil war, however, determined the failure of comprehensive language reform. Calls for linguistic unification gained new force in the second half of the 1920s: with the introduction of Ukrainizacija, the local variant of the all-Union nationalities policy of korenizacija introduced in 1923, the Ukrainian language was acknowledged as the means to the republic’s Sovietisation. This was part and parcel of the Soviet "affirmative action empire" (Terry Martin) which had to contain the 1917-1921 rise of nationalism of the empire’s minorities. Locally, the elites had to negotiate their own interests and the centre’s demands. How exactly do the debates on the "correct" codification of the language and the actual steps towards different ideals reflect the changing power dynamic between the centre and the republics in the interbellum ussr This is the problem this study sets out to tackle using the example of Soviet Ukraine. The paper explores the link between language and politics in Soviet Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s. While examining the political preconditions for the language policies in Ukraine, significant attention will also be devoted to the specifics of the 1928 spelling reform and its reception by the general public in Ukraine and abroad. In general, it is argued that in the Soviet Union language was often used as a tool of political consolidation, and the power struggle between different visions of the future of the republics can be seen in debates and reforms of language. Hence, the correlation between Soviet language policies and the subsequent Sovietisation (or Russification) is highlighted. The subsequent debates around the status of the Ukrainian language, its orthography and vocabulary exposed the unbridgeable differences between the political elites in the republic and powers in Moscow. The draft of the new orthography was thoroughly discussed by academics and linguists, representing different parts of Ukraine and the final draft was publicly discussed republic-wide. The spelling reform, adopted in 1929, can rightly be regarded as one of the greatest achievements of Ukrainizacija. This newly-acquired status was significantly challenged by the centralisation drive of the Moscow party leadership. This orthography, widely known as ’skrypnykivka’ (after the then Commissar for Education Mykola Skrypnyk) or ’Charkiv orthography’ was attacked for its attempts to dissociate the Ukrainian language from Russian and ’westernise’ the language. After 1933, the main principles of the spelling reform were labelled ’nationalistic’. The reform was quickly abandoned. Furthermore, after 1937, all the corpus planning attempts were geared towards ’purifying’ the Ukrainian language from foreign influence, when Russian equivalents and cognates were introduced or prioritised. © 2017 Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Firenze University Press, 2017
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34103 (URN)10.13128/Studi_Slavis-21939 (DOI)000416714500005 ()2-s2.0-85039709141 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2016). Ideologies of the Self: Constructing the Modern Ukrainian Subject in the Other's Modernity. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, 3, 89-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideologies of the Self: Constructing the Modern Ukrainian Subject in the Other's Modernity
2016 (English)In: Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, ISSN 2313-4895, Vol. 3, p. 89-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Postcolonial theory has recently come under critique as an interpretative scheme applied to Eastern Europe and particularly Ukraine. However, a closer look suggests that the critique applies only to some aspects of the approach, such as a focus on power relations and representations, while the key question should be rephrased as whether the Ukrainian subject was constituted as a colonial subject. A range of empirical material from 1920s Ukrainian discourses, both Soviet and émigré, is analyzed to shed light on how Ukrainians constructed their subjectivity as “a site of disorder” (Dipesh Chakrabarty), splitting themselves into uncultured peasant masses to be modernized and erased as a voiceless subaltern subject, on the one hand, and modernizing elites, on the other. This split can be understood as an epitome of the colonial condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kyiv: Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, 2016
Keywords
Ideology; subjectivity; modernity; Ukraine; Interbellum; postcolonial theory
National Category
History
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Critical and Cultural Theory; Historical Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31407 (URN)10.18523/kmhj73970.2016-3.89-103 (DOI)000382994800005 ()
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2016). Kyiv, Ukraine. The City of Domes and Demons from the Collapse of Socialism to the Mass Uprising of 2013-2014 [Review]. Europe-Asia Studies, 68(9), 1617-1619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kyiv, Ukraine. The City of Domes and Demons from the Collapse of Socialism to the Mass Uprising of 2013-2014
2016 (English)In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 1617-1619Article, book review (Other academic) Published
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31505 (URN)10.1080/09668136.2016.1241592 (DOI)000388643200013 ()
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2016). Perceptions of the EU in Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa: Looking in from the Outside [Review]. Europe-Asia Studies, 68(8), 1457-1458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of the EU in Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa: Looking in from the Outside
2016 (English)In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 1457-1458Article, book review (Other academic) Published
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31383 (URN)10.1080/09668136.2016.1230406 (DOI)000387763300015 ()
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Horbyk, R. (2015). Little Patriotic War: Nationalist Narratives in the Russian Media Coverage of the Ukraine-Russia Crisis. Asian Politics & Policy, 7(3), 505-511
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Little Patriotic War: Nationalist Narratives in the Russian Media Coverage of the Ukraine-Russia Crisis
2015 (English)In: Asian Politics & Policy, ISSN 1943-0779, E-ISSN 1943-0787, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 505-511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28183 (URN)10.1111/aspp.12193 (DOI)000363868100014 ()2-s2.0-84937136047 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4808-7670

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