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Sténs, A., Roberge, J.-M., Löfmarck, E., Beland-Lindahl, K., Felton, A., Widmark, C., . . . Ranius, T. (2019). From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden. Biodiversity and Conservation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

Keywords
Environmental history, Environmental policy, Forest biodiversity, Biodiversity conservation, Policy uptake
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38902 (URN)10.1007/s10531-019-01836-2 (DOI)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2019-09-04 Created: 2019-09-04 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
Lidskog, R., Johansson, J. & Sjödin, D. (2019). Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 34(4), 319-328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

Keywords
Forest fire, disaster, climate change, trust, extreme weather, accountability, risk
National Category
Forest Science Political Science Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37882 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2019.1598483 (DOI)000464310400001 ()2-s2.0-85063484273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2014-1875
Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J. (2018). Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 32, 9-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe
2018 (English)In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 32, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, a common theme in social science research, natural resource policies and practical management has been the increasing emphasis on partnerships and other forms of collaborative efforts as effective means to reach tangible and sustainable outcomes. Another significant trend is the increasing focus on the role of the forestry sector in managing the challenges of climate change, and the push towards a bio-based, low-carbon economy is at the epicenter of the public debate in several EU countries. Drawing on research on collaborative processes as well as research on policy design, this paper reviews the current trend to rely increasingly on collaborative efforts to improve sustainability, using forest governance in northern Europe as an illustrative case. It pays particular attention to efforts to balance concerned stakeholders through National Forest Programmes (NFPs), and considers these efforts in an international context. It concludes by elaborating on future research directions and policy recommendations that are critical to achieve intended outcomes in forest governance systems characterized by state-initiated collaborative processes as well as various forms of voluntary initiatives.

National Category
Political Science Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34556 (URN)10.1016/j.cosust.2018.01.009 (DOI)000445694900003 ()2-s2.0-85042326774 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00786Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J., Sandström, C. & Lundmark, T. (2018). Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values. Ecology & society, 23(4), Article ID 16.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values
2018 (English)In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

Keywords
adaptive management, collaboration, forest management, structured decision making
National Category
Environmental Sciences Political Science Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36389 (URN)10.5751/ES-10347-230416 (DOI)000454653700006 ()2-s2.0-85059461773 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Ring, I., Sandström, C., Acar, S., Adeishvili, M., Albert, C., Allard, C., . . . Simoncin, R. (2018). Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors. In: Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A. (Ed.), IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia (pp. 661-802). Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors
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2018 (English)In: IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A., Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services , 2018, p. 661-802Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services, 2018
National Category
Political Science Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36089 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Olschewski, R., Sandström, C., Kasymov, U., Johansson, J., Fürst, C. & Ring, I. (2018). Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia. Forest Policy and Economics, 97, 175-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia
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2018 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efforts to develop new governance systems in environmental policy at the international, national and subnational level face multiple challenges. In the context of these challenges, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established by the United Nations in 2012 to become the leading intergovernmental body for assessing the state of the planet’s biodiversity, its ecosystems, and the essential contributions they provide to society. In this note, we refer to the Regional Assessment for Europe and Central Asia. As co-authors of the report, we present the results of our assessment focusing on the forest sector due to its high potential for conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services. Notwithstanding several knowledge gaps, the IPBES regional assessment provides a valuable basis to make better-informed decisions. It identifies promising governance options by mainstreaming the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the sustained provision of ecosystem services into public and private decision making, emphasising a more pro-active and goal-oriented policy approach. To which degree these options can be realized and which pathways will be taken towards a sustainable transition is a matter of societal choice, including policy, economy and citizens.

Keywords
statsvetenskap, samhällsvetenskaplig miljöforskning
National Category
Political Science Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36548 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2018.10.007 (DOI)000452955800018 ()2-s2.0-85055179892 (Scopus ID)
Note

An outcome from Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), Regional Assessment for Europe and Central Asia

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Mårald, E., Sandström, C., Nordin, A., Rist, L., Sténs, A., Beland Lindahl, K., . . . Sonesson, J. (2017). Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract. London & New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract
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2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London & New York: Routledge, 2017. p. 192
Series
The earthscan forest library
Keywords
reflexive forestry, forest history, social contracts, governance, future studies
National Category
Agricultural and Veterinary sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33572 (URN)978-1-138-90430-9 (ISBN)978-1-315-69643-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Table of Contents

Introduction

Part I: Looking back

Chapter 1 Forest Benefits 

Chapter 2 Forest Knowledge and management 

Chapter 3 Forest governance 

Part II: Looking forward 

Chapter 4 Methods to study forests’ futures 

Chapter 5 Contemporary future forest research 

Chapter 6 Reflective forest futures 

Part III: Grasping the present 

Chapter 7 Integrated approaches – in theory and practice 

Chapter 8 Efforts to bridge governance and management in Swedish forests 

Part IV Reflective Forestry 

Chapter 9 The Principles of Reflective Forestry 

Chapter 10 The toolbox of Reflective Forestry 

Chapter 11 Towards a new forest social contract? 

Main Authors: Erland Mårald, Camilla Sandström and Annika Nordin 

Contributing Authors: Lucy Rist, Anna Sténs, Karin Beland Lindahl, Annika Carlsson-Kanyama, Johanna Johansson, Carina Keskitalo, Hjalmar Laudon, Rolf Lidskog, Tomas Lämås, Tomas Lundmark, Urban Nilsson, Eva-Maria Nordström, Jean-Michel Roberge and Johan Sonesson

Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-09 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Ring, E., Johansson, J., Sandström, C., Bjarnadóttir, B., Finér, L., Lībiete, Z., . . . Sætersdal, M. (2017). Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.. Ambio, 46(8), 878-893
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.
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2017 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

Keywords
Buffer, Certification, Forestry, Guidelines, Legislation, Riparian
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32735 (URN)10.1007/s13280-017-0924-8 (DOI)000412998600005 ()28573599 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020071050 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J. (2016). Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program. Forest Policy and Economics, 70, 137-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program
2016 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

Keywords
Bio-economy, Collaborative governance, Deliberation, Forest governance, Legitimacy, National Forest Program
National Category
Environmental Sciences Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30625 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2016.06.001 (DOI)000381534100017 ()2-s2.0-84976286769 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-18 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J. & Keskitalo, E. C. (2014). Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(2-3), 117-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden
2014 (English)In: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 6, no 2-3, p. 117-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The complexity of multi-level governance is well illustrated by forest management in one of Europe’s large forested states, Sweden. Deregulated government policies emphasise “freedom with responsibility,” largely expecting the forest sector to determine ways in which policy goals and legal requirements are reached. In relation to this, Sweden has become one of the countries with the largest share of forests certified by third-party organisations, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), in accordance with specific environmental and social criteria. This multi-level case study draws on official documents and semi-structured interviews to analyse Swedish forest governance; specifically, the impact of multiplicity and complexity of environmental considerations on agreement over goal coordination, implementation, and evaluation for feedback and accountability. This contributes to previous research by analysing interactions between state regulation and certification at multiple levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
accountability, forest governance, forest policy, Sweden, implementation, environmental considerations
National Category
Political Science Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25721 (URN)10.1080/19390459.2014.913363 (DOI)2-s2.0-84902869189 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Smart Tree Retention
Note

Published online: 20 May 2014

Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6823-3503

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