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Borevi, K. (2018). Familj, medborgarskap, migration.: Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektiv. Stockholm: Delegationen för Migrationsstudier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Familj, medborgarskap, migration.: Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektiv
2018 (Swedish)Other, Policy document (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: Delegationen för Migrationsstudier, 2018. p. 4
Series
Delmi Policy Brief ; 2018:5
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37265 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. (2018). Familj, medborgarskap, migration: Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektiv. Stockholm: Delegationen för Migrationsstudier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Familj, medborgarskap, migration: Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektiv
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the 1980s, family migration is the most common reason for foreign citizens outside the Nordic countries to be granted the right to settle in Sweden. Family migration cover cases when a person who already live in a country reunites with a family member from another country.

In June 2016, Sweden introduced a law on temporary restrictions in the possibility to achieve residence permit. The law was a direct result of the record-breaking immigration of asylum seekers experienced during the fall 2015. The measure was presented by the government as a necessity to protect the asylum reception system, as well as other central societal functions, from the strains caused by the large inflow of asylum seekers. One area where the 2016 rule changes have had the largest impact is family migration, which is the focus of study in this report. In particular, the stricter regulations meant that persons granted subsidiary protection status had very limited chances to get the right to reunite with their close family members. But the rule changes implied stricter regulations in relation to family migration affecting also other categories, and the Swedish population at large, e.g. in relation to support and housing requirements to be allowed to bring in a partner from a country outside of the EU.

Adopting a comparative perspective, this study analyses how the recent Swedish changes in family migration regulations relate (1) to existing EU legislation; (2) to other countries’ national regulations and (3) to arguments and considerations previously put forward in the Swedish policy debate, as well as arguments reflected in family migration policy debates in the neighboring countries Denmark and Norway.

The report begins with an introductory section describing the study’s aims, points of departure, method and delimitations. Thereafter follows a section which includes an overview of the numbers of family migrants in relation to other migrant categories, and a review of international research on family migration policies. The section provides a discussion about what principles, interests and values are at stake in this policy field. It is established that, besides migration policy concerns, issues revolving around family migration also bring to the fore central aspects of integration, citizenship and a society’s core values. A common European policy trend – identified in the literature as a “civic turn” in immigrant integration – is particularly highlighted. The trend reflects a renewed interest among states across Europe to actively strengthen and protect the national identity via formulation of new or sharpened requirements targeted at immigrants. Access to permanent residence permit, national citizenship or the right to reunite with a family member from abroad may for instance be conditioned with the applicant’s knowledge in the receiving state’s language, history and culture. Family migration policies potentially involve a “double conditionality” in the sense that integration requirements can be targeted both at the foreign family migrant and at the sponsor.

The empirical study is divided in two parts. In the first part an overview is presented (based on MIPEX 2015) of family migration policy regulations in the 28 EU member states plus Norway and Switzerland. The overview concerns four categories conditions and demands that (under certain conditions) the EU family reunification directive allows states to use: (1) requirements on status of residence and residence time; (2) age requirements; (3) support and housing requirements and (4) language and integration requirements. Discussing the member states’ commitments according to the directive and giving an overview of existing legislation in differeing countries, this analysis contributes to concretize what the “EU minimum level” may imply. The empirical study in this part also gives an account of how the Swedish legislation positions itself in relation to the “EU minimum level” before and after the temporary law of 2016.

The second part of the report study central policy processes in Sweden, Denmark and Norway which preceded decisions to introduce new or tougher demands and restrictions on family migration – or to reject such changes. The analysis provides a broad account of policy development in the three countries, from the turn of the millennium up to 2016, identifying what considerations, arguments and problem representations have guided the decisions. One conclusion of this analysis is that the large asylum migration in 2015 provoked reforms and changes in regulations in all three countries. But whereas the changes in Denmark and Norway were in line with policy development which had been noted during a very long (Denmark) or rather long (Norway) period of time, in Sweden the changes are to be described in terms of a sudden and paradigmatic migration policy change.

In the last section the conclusions of the study and what insights can be drawn from them in relation to future policy decisions are discussed. The report shows that the Swedish 2016 changes in family migration regulations represented a dramatic deviation from previous policies, motivated solely as a way to reduce asylum immigration. The intention was to adjust Swedish rules to the EU minimum level, in order not deviate as the country with more generous rules. For future policy decisions there is however a need of a more profound and elaborated debate and analysis, which in earnest takes into consideration the different core principles and values which are at stake in family migration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Delegationen för Migrationsstudier, 2018. p. 109
Series
Delmi rapport ; 2018:5
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37263 (URN)978-91-88021-31-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Bech, E. C., Borevi, K. & Mouritsen, P. (2017). A ‘civic turn’ in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Comparative Migration Studies, 5(1), Article ID 7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A ‘civic turn’ in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners’ possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely – from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants’ labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

Keywords
Immigration, Family migration, Family reunification, Civic integration
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34007 (URN)10.1186/s40878-016-0046-7 (DOI)28303235 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. (2017). Diversity and Solidarity in Denmark and Sweden. In: Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka (Ed.), Strains of Commitment: The Political Sources of Solidarity in Diverse Societies (pp. 364-388). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity and Solidarity in Denmark and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Strains of Commitment: The Political Sources of Solidarity in Diverse Societies / [ed] Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 364-388Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Denmark and Sweden have many features in common, not least the way welfare state symbols are used in the construction of each country’s national identity, but they display striking differences in approaches to immigrant integration. The chapter argues that this situation reflects the existence of distinctly different dominating ideal typical notions on how social cohesion and welfare state sustainability comes about: In Denmark, a society-centred perspective is predominant, viewing the existence of a particular cultural homogeneity as indispensable for the welfare state to sustain. In Sweden, a state-centred approach instead prevails, referring to the welfare state as a potential promoter of social inclusion. Depending on what ideal typical idea is the dominant, perceptions vary on what are the main challenges from immigration and cultural pluralism, and what policy measures need to be taken. Comparative analysis of a long period of elite discourses and policy developments substantiates the argument.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
Denmark, Sweden, welfare state, immigration, immigrant integration, social cohesion, national identity, cultural pluralism, policy developments
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34006 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795452.003.0013 (DOI)978-0-19-879545-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K., Jensen, K. K. & Mouritsen, P. (2017). The civic turn of immigrant integration policies in the Scandinavian welfare states. Comparative Migration Studies, 5(1), Article ID 9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The civic turn of immigrant integration policies in the Scandinavian welfare states
2017 (English)In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 9Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This special issue addresses the question of how to understand the civic turn within immigrant integration in the West towards programs and instruments, public discourses and political intentions, which aim to condition, incentivize, and shape through socialization immigrants into ‘citizens’. Empirically, it focuses on the less studied Scandinavian cases of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. In this introduction, we situate the contributions to this special issue within the overall debate on civic integration and convergence. We introduce the three cases, critically discuss the (liberal) convergence thesis and its descriptive and explanatory claims, and explain why studying the Scandinavian welfare states can further our understanding of the nature of the civic turn and its driving forces. Before concluding, we discuss whether civic integration policies actually work.

Keywords
Immigrant integration, Civic integration, Scandinavia, Convergence, Public philosophy
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34005 (URN)10.1186/s40878-017-0052-4 (DOI)28386533 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. (2016). Integration (2. utök.ed.). In: Politisk teori: (pp. 180-197). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration
2016 (Swedish)In: Politisk teori, Stockholm: Liber , 2016, 2. utök., p. 180-197Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2016 Edition: 2. utök.
Keywords
Politisk teori
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34008 (URN)978-91-47-11283-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. (2015). Diversity and Solidarity in Denmark and Sweden. In: On conference website: . Paper presented at The 22nd International Conference of Europeanists Contradictions: Envisioning European Futures (arranged by Council for European Studies), Paris, July 8–10, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity and Solidarity in Denmark and Sweden
2015 (English)In: On conference website, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How should we understand that Denmark and Sweden – two countries with manifold features in common – have arrived at strikingly divergent policy responses towards immigrant integration? This paper suggests that, despite similar references to welfare state symbols, dominant national identity constructions in the two countries represent distinctly different ideal typical views on how social solidarity is generated and maintained. In Denmark official political discourse and policy making processes indicates the working of a society-centered perspective on national identity, emphasizing social cohesion as a necessary precondition for public institutions to sustain. This idea is arguably reflected in the Danish immigrant policy approach, where the inclusion of newcomers is conditioned on them acquiring a comprehensive set of demands defining a predefined (and ‘settled’) idea of Danishness. In comparison, the Swedish idea about national identity is more oriented towards a state-centered approach, in the sense that the capacity of the political institutions – notably the welfare state – is typically emphasized as the core promoter of social inclusion and sense of national belonging. In the field of immigrant integration, this idea is mirrored in a widespread conviction that the organization of welfare state institutions, rather than the spirit of the people, constitutes the necessary condition for creating and sustaining national cohesion and integration. The paper gives a historical account of the nation building processes in the two countries and shows that crucial differences in political perceptions along the ideal types mentioned above are to be identified in contemporary political discourses related to the ‘civic’ turn in immigrant integration policies.

National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29107 (URN)
Conference
The 22nd International Conference of Europeanists Contradictions: Envisioning European Futures (arranged by Council for European Studies), Paris, July 8–10, 2015.
Projects
Från mångkulturalism till assimilation? Svensk integrationspolitik i europeisk belysning.
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P10-0752:1
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. (2015). Family Migration Policies and Politics: Understanding the Swedish Exception. Journal of Family Issues, 36(11), 1490-1508
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family Migration Policies and Politics: Understanding the Swedish Exception
2015 (English)In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 1490-1508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims at characterizing and explaining Swedish family migration policies from a European comparative point of view. The analysis shows that Sweden applies equally strict eligibility rules for members beyond the nuclear family as most other European countries. Moreover, Sweden introduced such stricter rules much earlier than other countries. In other respects, however, Swedish family migration policies stand out as exceptionally liberal in European comparison; few, if any, requirements are imposed on the sponsor and joining family members acquire equal rights status either immediately or 2 years after admission. To explain this situation, the article analyzes political processes behind two important family migration policy decisions in 1997 and 2010. The conclusion is that Swedish welfare state ideology and party politics importantly contribute to understanding why Sweden diverges from European trends in family migration policies.

Keywords
Sweden, migration policies, civic integration policies, welfare state, political
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25726 (URN)10.1177/0192513X14558297 (DOI)000358737000005 ()2-s2.0-84938407478 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. & Bengtsson, B. (2015). Mångfaldens vägskäl - om integrationspolitikens stigberoende. In: Bo Bengtsson, Gunnar Myrberg & Roger Andersson (Ed.), Mångfaldens dilemman: Medborgarskap och integrationspolitik (pp. 17-40). Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mångfaldens vägskäl - om integrationspolitikens stigberoende
2015 (Swedish)In: Mångfaldens dilemman: Medborgarskap och integrationspolitik / [ed] Bo Bengtsson, Gunnar Myrberg & Roger Andersson, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, p. 17-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29106 (URN)978-91-40-69212-2 (ISBN)
Projects
, Från mångkulturalism till assimilation? Svensk integrationspolitik i europeisk belysning
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P10-0752:1
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
Borevi, K. & Bengtsson, B. (2015). The tension between choice and need in the housing of newcomers: A theoretical framework and an application on Scandinavian settlement policies. Urban Studies, 52(14), 2599-2615
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The tension between choice and need in the housing of newcomers: A theoretical framework and an application on Scandinavian settlement policies
2015 (English)In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 2599-2615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The settlement and housing of refugees is high on the agenda in most European countries. This article develops a theoretical perspective on the housing provision of newly arrived migrants and applies it on the national discourses on settlement policies in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The theoretical discussion focuses on the ambivalence between choice and need in housing policy, and between promoting demos and ethnos in integration policy. The empirical analysis takes its departure in these tensions and investigates the national discourses in terms of three potential arguments for restricting autonomy in the housing market precisely for newly arrived migrants: the legal status, resource and neighbourhood arguments. This frame of analysis makes it possible to interpret and understand the surprisingly strong differences in settlement policies between the three countries.We argue that our theoretical approach and analytical framework should be relevant for understanding national political discourses on settlement policy more generally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
autonomy, housing policy, integration policy, right to housing, settlement policy
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25106 (URN)10.1177/0042098014548137 (DOI)2-s2.0-84943338602 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5662-3579

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