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• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Svenska börsbolags val av ramverk ihållbarhetsredovisning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The importance of sustainable responsibility for enterprises was introduced in 1992 lead bythe global goals of sustainability at the time. This evoked a discussion involving methods forthe accounting of sustainability. After a period of approximately 25 years, the SwedishAnnual Accounts Act was reformed to include legislation meaning larger enterprises ought toaccount for their sustainability work. Beyond this legislation, however, there is no guidanceregarding which framework an enterprise should turn to for help. The goal of this study hastherefore been to examine the uses of specific frameworks in listed companies on TheNASDAQ Stockholm stock exchange. The companies’ choice of framework is also examinedin regards to their line of business. Three points for measurement have been distinguished asthe years of 2014, 2016 and 2018. A quantitative content analysis was conducted whichgenerated a few conclusions. The results pinpoint that most companies, as well as most of thelines of businesses, conduct a sustainability report. It was also shown that businesses conductthese reports in regards to the legitimacy it earns them, as well as the compelling isomorphismthrough the Swedish Annual Accounts Act. The most frequently used frameworks weredistinguished as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Standards,International Organization for Standardization (ISO), UN Sustainable Development Goals(SDG) and the UN Global Compact (UN GC).

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
Den älskande kvinnan i Shakespeares dramatik: En dramatikanalys av dramerna Othello och Romeo och Juliet med fokus på Desdemona och Juliet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The essay The loving women in Shakespeare’s dramas is based on the fact that the dramas are performed circa 400 years after they were written. That makes it intresting to examine the caractars, and especially the female parts, and particularly the loving woman. To fulfill that, I have inquired Desdemona in Othello and Juliet in Romeo and Juliet. I have used eight parts of the drama analysis modelled by Birthe Sjöberg as the main research methode. The scientific aim is to investigate the loving woman in two plays of Shakespeas dramaproduction, Othello and Romeo and Juliet. The question at issue is, how does the female parts in Shakespeare’s tragedies looks like when it comes to the loving woman?

The research questions are – how are Juliet and Desdemona allowed to act? How does their love look like? How do they act? How are they as persons? What are important for them? When you investigate Juliet and Desdemona, you reach their husbands as well, so they become a part of the analysis. Are Juliet and Desdemona shaped by conventions, free will or by nature? These questions are discussed with help of Judith Butler’s theory of socialconstructivism.

Desdemona and Juliet are both very loving and free to act. Both are very beautiful and Desdemona is much appreciated as a person. Desdemona is happily married until Jago enters the scene and demands revenge because of a post he didn’t get. Romeo and Juliet are happy together but theire families destroy for them. Desdemona and Juliet are shaped by their genus that their surroundings force upon them. Both women act upon the constraints they face. Desdemona trys to obey and Juliet plays dead to escape the marriage with Paris. The analysis shows that the female part is oppressed by the culture of honour and by social circumstances as the family feud in Romeo and Juliet. Love does not survive and triumph over oppression. The patriarchate wins over emancipation, especially in Othello. Desdemona is strangled by her husband Othello and therefor she is a victim of patriarchate. The men also suffer from the patriarchate, their love can’t be free and they also die in the end.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
Quizzerfid: Stimulating curiosity through RFID technology.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Computer technology is increasingly being implemented into objects other than the standard desktop computer, be it for keeping existing products current in our digital age or simply exploring the possibilities within the field of embodied interaction.

The present paper investigates the emotional-motivational state of curiosity by discussing the design process and results from “Quizzerfid”, a design exploration on the use of RFID technology on a tangible puzzle. A short background on curiosity, embodied interaction, RFID technology, and other related projects will be given, to finally investigate the potentialities of the artefact in regards to stimulating student curiosity. A detailed description of the design of the Quizzerfid prototype will be presented, followed by an extensive process description and review of the performed user testing. The aim of this paper is to explore the design of the Quizzerfid puzzle framework in regards to its success in sparking curiosity and exploratory behaviour through embodied interaction, contributing to the design of future tangible interfaces and possibly even pedagogical aids.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Putting Peace in the Frame: Alternative US Media Framing of the War in Syria2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The central question of this thesis is, how has the alternative US media framed the war in Syria? The analytical approach is informed by recent scholarly debate regarding peace journalism and constructive journalism. The framings of the war in Syria have been studied in three alternative US online news sources through a qualitative content analysis. The news sources are Truthout, The Progressive and Common dreams. Results show that these alternative US media has framed the war in line with characteristics of peace journalism and constructive journalism. This tendency departs from how the conflict is regularly framed in mainstream US media. The three studied media have for example promoted diplomatic and peaceful solutions to the war in Syria and tend to give voices to people that are not part of the US political elite.

• Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Gender studies.
Mit Glück und Geschick2007In: TAZ Tageszeitung, ISSN 0941-1526, no 8 März, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

Warum gibt es in Schweden feministische Minister, während die Deutschen nichts von Emanzen wissen wollen? Die Schwedinnen waren schon in den Dreißigern berufstätig. Und der Staat war für die Frauen immer ein Partner. In Deutschland dagegen war er Obrigkeit, Nazistaat und dann Männerbund

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
“It’s like we’ve always been walking behind men”: A qualitative study on how machismo and the Me Too- and feminist movements in Chile affect female broadcast journalists and their professional roles2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Chile is one of the many countries in Latin America affected by machismo (Torres et al 2002, p. 163-164). In the year of 2017 the Me Too-movement sparked a fire in Chilean media and the feminist movement grew bigger and stronger. These movements affected many institutions, organizations and industries. The journalism industry being one of them. The purpose of this study is to investigate how female journalists in Chile perceive themselves, these movements and their journalistic roles in the context of a country affected by machismo and movements trying to fight it. To investigate these themes a qualitative approach has been used by conducting semi-structured interviews with eight female Chilean journalists that are currently working or have worked in broadcasting. The theoretical background of this study is based on the Hierarchy of Influences model by Pamela J. Shoemaker and Stephen D. Reese (2016), which has been combined with the concept of journalistic role perceptions by Thomas Hanitzsch and Tim P. Vos (2018).

The results indicated that the majority of the women interviewed had positive opinions towards the Me Too- and feminist movements in Chile, and that these movements have also had a positive impact on Chilean society and the journalism industry. And so the effects have also been visible in the women's private and professional lives. Even though machismo and harmful patriarchal norms have been and is a part of their lives, the social structures have not gotten in the way of them feeling strong, fighting for their rights, and other women's rights in the industry. Machismo and the movements have all played important parts in how these women have taken on their journalistic roles.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Revisionsmedotiken i förändring: En kvalitativ studie om hur digitaliseringen förändrat revisionsmetodiken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Utvecklingen sker idag i snabb takt och digitaliseringen avstannar inte, utan ökar. Forskning visar att digitala verktyg förändrar revisionsmetodiken, vilket motiverar varför det är intressant att studera hur digitaliseringen förändrat revisionsmetodiken. Revision innefattar idag revidering av bolag som nyttjar big data i större utsträckning. Detta innebär att revisionsbolagen måste kunna hantera detta för att kunna inhämta tillräckliga revisionsbevis som styrker företagets påståenden. Detta motiverar varför det är intressant att studera hur revisionsmetodiken förändrats i takt med att de reviderade bolagen digitaliserats. I denna uppsats har kvalitativa intervjuer använts för att undersöka hur revisionsmetodiken förändrats av digitaliseringen. Uppsatsen vill besvara hur revisionsmetodiken förändrats av att dels revisionsbyråer digitaliserats samt dels av att de reviderade bolagen digitaliserats. Val av detta ämne grundar sig i att revisionsbranschen idag förändras till följd av rådande digitalisering samt nya tekniska lösningar (Raphael, 2017). Dessutom framhåller FAR (2016) att digitaliseringen idag ses som en av samhällets starkaste förändringskrafter. Intervjuerna genomfördes med tolv revisorer från olika byråer för att få data som kan besvara forskningsfrågorna. Resultatet kunde visa att implementation av dataanalys har resulterat i en stor förändring av revisionsmetodiken, vilket även tidigare forskning har kunnat betona. Det klassiska arbetssättet med urval- och stickprovsgranskning frångås allt mer idag, vilket är en av de viktigaste slutsatserna i denna uppsats. Vid implementationen av dataanalyser har istället ett nytt sätt att arbeta vuxit fram innebärande granskning av hela populationer. Dessutom kan uppsatsen visa på att då kundernas verksamhet har digitaliserats har revisionsmetodiken förändrats genom minimerad risk och tidsåtgång vid test av interna kontroller.

• Karlstad University / Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Karlstad University / Stockholm University.
Childlessness, sex composition of children, and divorce risks in China2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, no 26, p. 753-780Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Studies on children and divorce in China find a negative association between the number of children and divorce and a protective effect of having a son. Nonetheless, we have little knowledge of how these associations have developed over time.

Objective: This study explored the association of the number and sex composition of children with divorce risks in China over the period 1980–2012.

Methods: We conducted an event history analysis of longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies.

Results: Childless couples had an increasingly higher divorce risk than couples with children over our observation period. In the 2000s, the divorce risk of childless couples in both urban and rural areas was approximately five times that of one-child parents. The role of the child’s gender differs for urban and rural one-child parents, with no significant effect on the divorce risk of urban parents and different effects over time for rural parents.

Conclusions: Our findings show that ending a marriage when having no children has become an increasingly pronounced trend. Furthermore, partially due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic progress and the rise of girls’ empowerment, the child’s gender has lost importance for the divorce risk of urban parents.

Contribution: This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society. Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China.

• Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
Balansen mellan att uppmuntra och ställa krav. En reflektion över studenters uppsatsskrivande i relation till stress och stöttning2019In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)

När studenter ska skriva sin första stora uppsats, det vill säga det som i högskoleförordningen betecknas ”självständigt arbete”, möter de delvis andra krav och förväntningar än de stött på tidigare under sin utbildning. Det kan gälla till exempel hur självständiga de förväntas vara, men också att de ska skriva en text som inte bara visar vad de själva har lärt sig utan som också andra kan lära sig av. För några är detta en spännande utmaning, som de ser fram emot, men för andra kan uppgiften framstå som skrämmande och stressande. Hur ska man som kursansvarig kunna entusiasmera och motivera studenter för uppgiften att skriva sitt självständiga arbete, när man samtidigt vill få dem att inse att uppsatsarbetet kan vara både svårt och utmanande och att de måste arbeta hårt för att klara av det?

I denna artikel använder jag scaffolding som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att reflektera över detta, i ett resonemang runt vad stress och stöttning kan innebära i detta sammanhang och hur relationen dem emellan kan se ut. Jag utgår från mina erfarenheter som kursansvarig på en självständigt arbete-kurs på ett av lärarutbildningens program.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Migrationsverkets utredningsansvar i asylprocessen: En studie om domstolarnas bedömning av Migrationsverkets tillämpning av officialprincipen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Seeking asylum is a human right, which means that all states in the world that have signed the UN Refugee Convention are responsible for ensuring that refugees in need of protection can get it. Sweden has signed the UN Refugee Convention as early as in 1954. Thus, a legally secure asylum process is to be sought. The Swedish Migration Agency has a central role in this, as the reception of refugees is the primary responsibility of the Agency. The Migration Agency's case management must therefore comply with the requirements regarding ensuring the protection of people who are forced to flee, in Swedish, European and international law. A basic principle of asylum cases is that it is the applicant who has the burden of proof to make his protection needs plausible. On the other hand, the Migration Agency has an extended investigative responsibility, as there is a strong protection interest in investigations of asylum cases. The so-called officialprincipen places a demand on the Migration Agency to investigate a case to the extend its nature requires. If the work of Migrations Agency does not meet these requirements, the result may be that deficiencies in the investigation are put on the applicant and that the application gets rejected. Deficiency in case management by the Migration Agency, apart from that it is affecting individuals, and can destroy a life, can also, in the long run, have devastating consequences for the entire Swedish legal system. It also means more work for the courts, double work for the Migration Agency and increased costs for the judiciary system.

The change of the instance procedure in 2005 has greatly improved the asylum process. The case law in the area has meant that the courts can check the Migration Agency's investigations and give references to the Migration Agency about what needs to be done in order for the administrative process to be more legally secure. My conclusion is that the Swedish legal order in this area is changing as more demands are made by the EU and due to the EU's increased competence in the area. When it comes to the actual design of the provision for the officialprincipen, it is rather vaguely designed. The frameworks for what is covered by the Migration Agency’s investigative duty appear relatively diffuse for the Agency. Hopefully, the provision in the new Administration Act, and a more solid case law in the area, will result in a more uniform and predictable enforcement of the officialprincipen at the Migration Agency.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
An Empirical Study Concerning Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers: The perception of personalized content in news applications.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of personalization on news applications and to examine to what extent it is seen as an optimal solution for users to receive information. Due to the growth of online news and digital journalism the amount of information that is being published online is significantly higher nowadays than it has previously been. Therefore, a recommendation system called personalization has been introduced to choose content for the reader. Many concerns of personalization have already been brought to light, these concerns are believed to be contributing to filter bubbles and echo chambers. This study will investigate these concerns further in order to understand the users. The methodology used in the study were semi-structured interviews and an analysis based on the concerns brought forward by Borgesius et al. Six interviews were conducted with users and two were conducted with major news organizations in Sweden. The results of the study indicate that users fear personalization will cause filter bubbles and polarization due to them only being subjected to one perspective. The users are unaware as to how personalization works and therefore question why it is being introduced into news applications. Due to personalization being a new phenomenon news applications it is not yet seen as an optimal solution by users or news organizations. There are, however, many factors that can assist in its development such as transparency and awareness of the phenomenon.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Hållbarhetsredovisning: En kvalitativ studie om begriplighet, användbarhet och relevans av en hållbarhetsrapport ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Title: Sustainability accounting - A qualitative study about the understanding, usefulness and

relevance of sustainability reporting based on an employee perspective.

Problematization: There has been previous research about sustainability reporting through

an external point of view. There is however a gap in research about sustainability reporting

from an employee perspective.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a better comprehension of how employees

perceive the information presented in sustainability report and if they feel that the report is

aimed for them or external stakeholders.

Frame of reference: This episode began with previous research about the three qualitative

characteristics that are used when creating a financial report. The framework of GRI is also

presented. Lastly the stakeholder theory and stakeholder dialogue are introduced.

Method: This study has a qualitative approach where 10 semi-structured interviews have

been held to collect data.

Research: The employees have a better understanding of the information related to the social

and environmental issues. Furthermore they only consider the information regarding the

environment to be useful in their daily work. The employees believe that the environmental

and social part of the report is relevant while the economic could not be assessed by the

employees.

Conclusions: Diagrams, thorough explanations and knowledge of the subject increased the

understanding of the report. The economical part can be further understood if there is more

extensive content. The information becomes useful when they can directly use it in their daily

work and when they feel that the information is aimed for them. They need to receive the

information through meetings for it to be useful for them. They had little previous knowledge

of the economical part and were there for not able to assess the relevance of the report's

content while the environmental and the social area were relevant because the content has

currently been highlighted in newspapers and debates.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Styrsystem och hållbarhetsrapportering: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrsystem används inom dagligvaruhandeln för att arbeta hållbart samt vilken roll hållbarhetsrapporten har i butikers styrsystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Sustainability is a more relevant subject today than it has ever been before. A common definition of sustainability is to divide it into three dimensions, economic, social and environmental sustainability. Back in time, companies have been reporting their sustainability work for a long time. Many companies report their sustainability because external and internal stakeholders demand it, for example, it is demanded by many consumers. The year of 2016 a new lay came in the Annual Accounts Act. 6 chapter § 10 says that large companies now must present a sustainability report (SFS 1995: 1554). Sustainability reporting can, according to Frostenson et al. (2015 p.15) be used as an internal control mechanism for measuring, controlling and setting. Through a qualitative study on FMCG companies that by law must establish a sustainability report. The purpose of this study was to investigate how FMCG companies used the company's sustainability report. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate the role of the sustainability report in the stores from an employee perspective. This was done by doing ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted with decision makers in FMCG companies. The control instruments that are mainly used in FMCG companies to work with sustainably were planning, cybernetic systems and culture. Rewards and replacement were not used as a control instrument and administrative controls were used by some stores. The sustainability report was used partly in cybernetic systems, administrative controls and planning.

• Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
Ymnighetshornets baksida - den adliga matsmältningen: En apoteksbok berättar2019In: Eskilskällan: lokalhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 2000-9003, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

En oansenlig bok med rosamarmorerad pärm och bleknad handskrift blir i den här artikeln ett titthål till en svunnen tid. Vad kan då en tunn liten apoteksbok berätta om dåtidens aristokratiska livsstil? I den här artikeln diskuterar jag relationen mellan en serie läkemedelsinköp och den adliga livsstilens sociala funktion.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Lokalisering av huvudkontor bland Sveriges största företag: En studie om drivkrafter som förklarar huvudkontorens lokalisering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
The Rhythm of Expression: Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Form2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The intent of this essay is to shed light on the relevance and meaning of the concept of ”form” in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology. Drawing on his early texts as well as on the published notes of his first course held at the Collège de France, we argue that the notion of form essentially carries two meanings in the thought of the philosopher. One epistemological, stating that the perceived always assumes the figure-ground structure (signifying a figurative dimension of form). Another ontological according to which form designates the originary manifestation of the world in the event of expression (signifying a genetic dimension of form). Finally, we argue that the interplay of these two dimension of form lead Merleau-Ponty to an intuitive understanding of rhythm as the sensible manifestation of form, suggesting a potentially fruitful encounter, converging upon this notion, with the thought of Henri Maldiney.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Gender as ‘Ebola from Brussels’: The Anti-colonial Frame and the Rise of Illiberal Populism2018In: Signs (Chicago, Ill.), ISSN 0097-9740, E-ISSN 1545-6943, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 797-821Article in journal (Refereed)

This article examines the recent wave of grassroots mobilizations opposing gender equality, LGBT rights and sex education, which vilify the term gender in public debates and policy document. The anti-gender movement emerged simultaneously in various locations after 2010. We argue that it is not just another wave of anti-feminist backlash, or a new tactic of the Vatican in its ongoing efforts to undermine gender equality, but a new ideological and political configuration, which emerged in response to global economic crisis of 2008 and the ongoing crisis of liberal democracy. The backlash of the 80s and 90s combined neo-conservatism with market fundamentalism (which is to some extent still the case with neoconservative Christian fundamentalists in the US and elsewhere), while the new movement – though in many ways a continuation of earlier trends – tends to combine  gender conservatism with a critique of neoliberalism and globalization. Liberal elites are presented as “colonizers”; “genderism” is demonized as an ideology imposed by the world’s rich on the poor. Thanks to the anti-colonial frame, anti-genderism has remarkable ideological coherence and great mobilizing power: right-wing populists have captured the imagination and hearts of large portions of local populations more effectively than progressive movements have managed to do. The article examines the basic tenets of anti-genderism, shedding light on how this ideological construct contributes to the contemporary transnational resurgence of illiberal populism. We argue that today’s global right, while selectively borrowing from liberal-left and feminist discourses, is in fact constructing a new universalism, an illiberal one. While the examples discussed are mostly from Poland, the pattern is transnational, and our conclusions may have serious implications for feminist theory and activism.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
Kroppslig längtan: en intervjustudie om hur icke-binära kön materialiseras2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Through the concept of longing, this study aims to explore non-binary embodiment and becoming, with a focus on examining how non-binary embodiment makes and is made possible. The study takes it departure in Karen Barads theories and concepts such as intra-action, and it is also from Barad the concept of longing is inspired. Longing is understood as the drive that is and makes possible life and the livable life. Longing is not reserved for humans but is rather tangent a posthuman understanding of matters agency, where matter is understood as an active agent in its own creation. The study is based on a combination of go-along interviews and semistructured interviews with six non-binary people.The study can be understood as an effort to make possible new or other ways to understand sex/gender, embodiment and becoming. Ways that is not based on a framework of understanding that in its foundational structure reduces the non-binary as something unintelligible. In the study longing is used as a means to create order and direction in the analysis of the participants stories. Longing has the benefit of being in constant movement and change, as such it contributes as a way of understanding that do not limit the participants stories of sex/gender, embodiment and becoming.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Hur hanterar man personalpolitik i en bransch som är både konjunkturkänslig och organiseras i projektform?: En intervjustudie om HRM i svenska byggföretag under en nedgångsfas på bostadsmarknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

HRM eller Human Resource Management är det moderna begreppet för personalpolitik. Att hantera personal är en svår uppgift, i synnerhet under ekonomiska nedgångsfaser.

Studiens primära syfte är att få en djupare förståelse för hur fem svenska byggföretag arbetar med sin HRM. Det sekundära syftet är att utreda vilka personalpolitiska förändringar som dessa byggföretag har genomfört och/eller planerar att genomföra under den pågående nedgångsfasen på bostadsmarknaden.

Studien har baserats på semistrukturerade intervjuer med sammanlagt fem HR-chefer på Skanska AB, PEAB Bostad AB, JM AB, JM Entreprenad AB och HSB Bostad AB. Intervjufrågor som ställts har avgränsats till rekrytering och urval, personalutbildning och individuell kompetensutveckling, hanterandet av disciplin och klagomål samt hanterandet av belöningar. Det erhållna resultatet har analyserats med hjälp av en induktiv forskningsmetod.

Byggföretagen har flera gemensamma drag. Vid rekrytering och urval väljer samtliga bolag extern rekrytering. Vid personalutbildning så koncentrerar sig samtliga bolag på både interna och externa utbildningar, förutom JM Entreprenad AB som numera enbart fokuserar på interna utbildningar. Att medarbetaren blir sedd samt att den får regelbunden feedback är viktigt enligt HR-cheferna och samtliga bolag, förutom HSB Bostad AB, använder sig av ett individuellt bonussystem. Under den pågående nedgångsfasen så har samtliga byggföretag, förutom Skanska AB, varit tvungna att antingen frysa rekryteringen eller reducera antalet medarbetare; detta i syfte att förbli konkurrenskraftiga. Enligt HR-cheferna så kommer byggföretagen bland annat att lägga mer fokus på att vidareutveckla försäljningskompetensen hos den nuvarande personalen. En av orsakerna till Skanska AB:s framgång kan vara att medarbetarna äger en stor del av Skanska Koncernen; detta motiverar dem att stanna kvar samt att arbeta hårdare.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
The Visual Conveyance of Narrative: From A Cognitive Perspective2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This qualitative study aims to explore, from a cognitive perspective, the influence visuals have on conveying the game's narrative and how this engages the player. The focus being to further the understanding of how both visuals and narrative affect the overall experience. Motivated by the underrepresentation of visuals and narrative studies within game research. At the centre of the study is a thematic analysis of qualitative data collected from face to face interviews in a home and school environment, where players shared memorable moments experienced while playing a game. The interviews were complemented by data from popular forums, with the same focus. Helping the analysis of the data were cognitive theories into how our minds process and interpret information, an analysis which resulted in five main themes with corresponding code, which represented what appeared central for the creation of the memorable moment. There were, however, always more than one element within the game which provided and engaged the player in the narrative construction of the memorable moment, which served to highlight the importance of considering all aspects of the design, as all affected our meaning making. Central to engaging the player's narrative construction was the intrinsic motivation of curiosity, in tangent with our desire to learn. Exactly how different visuals elements affected the player's narrative construction did not become apparent during the analysis, as a fine line existed between what element provided for different memorable moments. Most notably was that all of the themes and codes could be tied back to engagement, as all of them served to engage the player's meaning making. A discovery that in turn, lead to the creation of a framework for future studies, which, while supported by cognitive theories, aims to enable the discovery of what and how different aspects engage the player in the experience.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
Constructive Alignment in Teaching Game Research in Game Development Bachelors Programme2019In: Paper presented at Teaching Games: Pedagogical Approaches - DiGRA 2019 Pre-Conference Workshop(TGPA:DiGRA2019), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)

This paper presents a case study of a Bachelor level game research methods course (15 ECTS). The course covers observations, interviews, and introduction to statistical analysis. The course set-up follows \textit{constructive alignment} design where the aim is that the learning goals, learning tasks, and evaluation are aligned. During the course, students first learn research design and later design their research based on a set of examples and conduct data gathering and analysis. The evaluation of the pedagogical approach used is based on students' learning diaries where the focus is the methods and applying methods. Qualitative evaluation indicates that students can better describe their research designs and analyses.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
Listening to radio theatre in Argentina in the 1950s: “The town became a ghost town when it was radio theatre time”2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis aims to analyse Argentinean radio broadcasting in the 1950s and especially how this medium issued the so-called radio theatre that the audience received in their everyday life. More precisely it is investigated how radio theatre in the 1950s is remembered today, both by listeners who took part in these broadcasts and how it is remembered in the media. Of special interest is what is articulated as specific about its form and how radio theatre was integrated in and changed everyday life. The audience was not only able to receive radio theatre but was also able to contribute with their own stories.

Argentina was one of the pioneering countries in the field of broadcasting, performing its first radio broadcast on August 27, 1920, in the city of Buenos Aires. The Argentinian radio broadcasting was a place of entertainment, information, social and political discussions. One of the main changes in Argentina radio broadcasting happened in 1929 in Buenos Aires. This change was influenced by the first broadcast of radio theatre. In the beginning, radio plays were about stories of “gauchos” (in English cowboys) and folklore, provoking enthusiasm amongst the audience. Argentina radio theatre continues to develop with the introduction of gender-oriented goals which became significant successful. The radio play began to cover the whole familys interest. Argentina radio theatre caused a significantly change in its audiences’ customs throughout the country.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Det ideella måttet på prestation: En studie om hur ideella organisationer arbetar med prestationsmätning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The emerging of new arrangements of financial auditing, accounting and efficiency measurements have had a dramatic impact on the vocabulary and the underlying principles of public sector organizations. This, in turn, has led nonprofit organizations into embracing more business-like and profit-driven approaches. The research field of Nonprofit Management emphasizes that the unique features of nonprofit organizations such as their financial and legal status, as well as the operational goals based on social values, contribute to the extremely complex nature of the conceptualization of organizational effectiveness. Which in turn gives rise to a problematic dilemma which entails that traditional measurement criteria based on financial measures are not able to account for nonprofit organizations' achievements, but in the nonprofit context becomes both ineffective and misleading. In particular, it is about the nonprofit sector's inability to duplicate the sharp and straightforward approach to measuring, manage, and account for nonprofit organizations´ performance. Departing from the above issues the study aims to analyze and examine how nonprofit organizations with an interconnecting business area makes practices of performance management to achieve social and financial goals. And to examine the problem of performance management within the nonprofit sector.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
The association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis: Effects of different levels of vitamin D deficiency - A meta-analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies studying the risk of vitamin D deficiency in tuberculosis patients and in healthy controls. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the level of vitamin D to test the risk in TB groups and in healthy groups.

Methods: Pubmed was searched for observational studies in human and English that discussed the association between risk of low serum vitamin D and TB. Meta-analysis was performed on all relevant studies combined and for subgroups of each vitamin D level.

Results: 22 studies were selected and pooled in the analysis. The results were consistent with previous studies examining the same risk. The overall log risk ratio (log RR) of low vitamin D was significantly higher in TB patients 1.68 times than healthy controls. In 4 subgroup meta- analyses based on vitamin D level below (20 nmol/L, 30 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L), the risk of having low vitamin D in TB patients was (1.82, 2.89, 1.38, 1.32) respectively. That subgroup analysis showed more clearly the higher RR were below 20 and 30 nmol/L. The smallest RR was at 75 nmol/L level.

Conclusion: This study verified the association between risk of low vitamin D level and TB development. It also clarified that, the risk increased by decreasing vitamin D level.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
Constructions of self-identification: children of immigrants in Sweden2019In: Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, ISSN 1070-289X, E-ISSN 1547-3384Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper is about self-identification by a sample of young people with various migrant backgrounds in Sweden. In a survey we asked them how they present themselves to others in different contexts (in their schools and neighbourhoods or when they are out of Sweden). Our findings suggest that young people’s identification is not fixed. The paths to these various forms of identification are shaped by a variety of individual (class background, parents’ country of origin) and social factors (friendship networks and school composition). The results indicate that those who identified themselves as Swedish or hyphenated tended to be quite similar as regards their other characteristics, while those who presented themselves with the parents’ birth country or religious affiliation have very little in common.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
Södertörn University.
Volunteering as Media Work: The Case of the Eurovision Song Contest2019In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 231-251Article in journal (Refereed)

This article explores volunteering in relation to the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC), which took place in Stockholm in 2016 and in Kyiv in 2017, with the aim of shedding light on volunteering as a form of “media work”. Following from this, the article aims to problematize the theoretical concept of free labour and analyse the symbolic exchanges and currencies involved in employing a “free” labour force. Through interviews with volunteers, this article explores what volunteers at huge media events do, how their work is organized, and what motivates them. The empirical basis for this article is an interview study with volunteers and volunteer organizers of the ESC in Stockholm (May 2016) and in Kyiv (May 2017), complemented with a document analysis of volunteer guidebooks and organizational reports. The article shows that eventfulness is an essential part of what volunteer labour brings to an event such as the ESC. It is also a key element in the production of economic value: eventfulness is a currency that expresses the value of the event itself and is a key feature of place branding. Furthermore, eventfulness – along with the feeling of being a part of an event, of something bigger, as it unfolds in time – is a key feature of the motivation for the volunteers who contribute with unpaid labour. As such, eventfulness can also be understood as a form of currency or symbolic capital that forms the main remuneration or “wage” earned by volunteers at an event such as the ESC.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
IFRS 15 - ett år efter införandet: En kvantitativ undersökning om hur implementeringen av IFRS 15 har påverkat företags finansiella rapporter utifrån ett branschorienterat perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Background: Revenue recognition has been a debated issue for a long time. During the 1990s and 2000s, several critical revenue related events took place. These events led to the development of a new standard for revenues called IFRS 15"Revenue from contracts with customers". One year has passed since the adoption in Swedish law and the aftermaths are available for analysis. The implementation of IFRS 15 is expected to affect the revenue reporting and the disclosure requirements referred to them. However, this change is not expected to affect all industries the same way but will likely depend on business model used.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to illustrate how revenue recognition has been affected by the implementation of IFRS 15 from an industry perspective as well as increase understanding of why some industries are affected and others not.

Method:IFRS 15 has one single model for all revenuearising from contracts with customers and the standard also includes expanded disclosure requirements. The first approach examines how net sales change in companies when implementing IFRS 15. The reason for this is to determine if the standard has had anyeffect on the company's sales revenue. The second approach in the study is to examine the companies segment reporting to determine whether the implementation have had an effect on the company's financial report, based on the expanded disclosure requirements. Some industries are expected to be affected more than others which is why both approaches are examined from an industry-oriented perspective.

Results: Customer serviceand telecom are the two industries that have the most affected net sales in connection with the implementation of IFRS 15. The two industries that showed the biggest impact on changed segment reporting are industrial and health care. Oil and gas and utilities reported no impact on net sales or changed segment reporting.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Redovisningskonsulten och den pågående digitaliseringen: En kvalitativ studie om redovisningskonsultens upplevelse av de förändringar digitaliseringen medför2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Digitization is stated to be one of the most fundamental driving force for long term change in accounting. The accountants work is broad and a digital change has the power to change the profession on multiple levels. It requires analyzing the external environment together with the individual’s experience of this to create an understanding about the turbulent change that digitization entails, a subject that other studies mean needs clarification. This study aims to create an understanding about the accountant's experience about changes, opportunities and challenges of the profession as a result of digitization through an institutional perspective. This was made with an qualitative method using semi-structured interviews. The results of the study showed that the accountant experiences the ongoing digitization as a institutional, structural change on all levels of the profession which is inevitable.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Marknadens reaktion på omvända vinstvarningar: En eventstudie om hur tillkännagivandet omvända vinstvarningar påverkar aktiekursen hos svenska börsnoterade bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

En vinstvarning är när ett företag går ut med information till allmänheten om att resultatet kommer att bli väsentligt lägre än förväntat. Denna studie undersöker marknadens reaktion vid omvända vinstvarningar, som är precis vad namnet antyder, när företag går ut med information om att resultatet kommer bli väsentligt högre än förväntat. Marknadens reaktion vid vinstvarningar tenderar att vara mer negativ då företag väljer att inte dela med sig av detaljerad information och mindre negativ då företaget väljer att vara mer transparenta och dela med sig av detaljerad information (Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010). Tidigare studier har också visat att reaktionen vid vinstvarningar är mer negativa hos små företag än stora (Jackson & Madura, 2003; Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010). Om resultat från tidigare studier som har studerat negativa vinstvarningar skulle stämma överens även vid omvända vinstvarningar betyder det att aktiekursen stiger mer hos små företag än hos stora företag vid tidpunkten för tillkännagivandet och att minskad transparens har en positiv effekt. Studien försöker därför svara på frågeställningen; Hur reagerar den svenska marknaden när företag tillkännager omvända vinstvarningar?

Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av en eventstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Urvalet av omvända vinstvarningar är de som har hittats med hjälp av databasen Retriever Media Archive under åren 2004 – 2019. Resultaten visar att företagens storlek och vilken typ av information som finns i de omvända vinstvarningarna har betydelse för hur stark marknadsreaktionen blir. Studien undersöker även om det förekommer abnormal avkastning redan tiden innan dagen för tillkännagivandet, vilket kan tyda på informationsläckage, men detta kan inte påvisas med statistisk signifikans. Då regelverken kring huruvida företag måste vinstvarna är diffusa och öppna för tolkning kan det också diskuteras kring vilka konsekvenser det får för företagen att vara så transparenta som möjligt.

Resultaten tyder på att den positiva kumulativa abnormala avkastningen är signifikant avvikande vid tillkännagivandet av omvända vinstvarningar från svenska börsnoterade bolag. Även fast så hög transparens som möjligt bör eftersträvas ur ett moraliskt perspektiv, så kan resultaten från denna studie användas till att förstå hur marknaden tar emot informationen vid tillkännagivandet av omvända vinstvarningar och därmed ge inblick i hur olika utformningar av denna information kan leda till olika marknadsreaktioner. Om en stark positiv reaktion eftersträvas så visar studiens resultat att det ger en starkare marknadsreaktion att inkludera mer detaljerad information. Små företag har också större chans att få aktiekursen att stiga vid en omvänd vinstvarning än vad stora företag har (Jackson & Madura, 2003; Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010).

• Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
Fritidshemmets samsyn och samverkan med vårdnadshavare: - Partnerskapsprincipen2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This study investigated the relationship between the after-school recreation center and the pupil’s guardians focusing on the nature of their cooperation. The study employed a survey method to elicit opinions and thoughts from both recreational teachers and the guardians.The results from the survey indicate that their agreement between the recreational teachers and the guardians when it comes to the concepts of consensus and collaboration, and the major benefits that the co-operation between the parties brings. Furthermore, the research results indicate that there is a will and an interest from both parties to develop the existing relationship based on the partnership principle despite the challenges and difficulties experienced by the parties.

• Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
Encouraging student independence: Perspectives on scaffolding in higher education supervision2019In: Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN 2050-7003, E-ISSN 1758-1184, article id JARHE-01-2019-0012Article in journal (Refereed)

Purpose

The aim of this article is to examine if and how supervisors’ use of two kinds of potential scaffolding means - asking questions and giving instructions - could contribute to fulfilling the scaffolding intention of student independence, in the context of supervision of degree projects within higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based on qualitative content analysis of two series of supervision meetings between a supervisor and a student in Swedish higher education, comprising a total of eight recorded sessions. The theoretical framework of the article is centered on scaffolding and independent learning, and central concepts are contingency, fading, transfer of responsibility and student independence.

Findings

The analysis shows how the supervisors’ use of questions, and in some respect instructions, could contribute to fulfilling the scaffolding intention of student independence through enabling active participation of both student and supervisor and that the supervision was based on contingency. The analysis further shows that the supervisors tended to become more directive as the work came along, especially when students appeared to be running out of time. The supervision processes did thus not appear to be characterized by fading and transfer of responsibility.

Originality/value

This article contributes to the research field of higher education through discussing student independence as a potential scaffolding intention within supervision of degree projects, based on recorded supervision meetings. Supervision of degree projects is a highly relevant context for discussing scaffolding, since it combines increased student independence with close interaction between student and supervisor for an extended period.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
#maskulinitet: - En kvalitativ analys om maskulinitet, maskulinitetsnormer och dess konsekvenser till sociala problem2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The aim of this study was to examine how authors on Instagram describe masculinity norms. We aimed to further analyse how the authors illustrate the consequences of masculinity norms in relation to social problems. The study is based on 25 posts from authors on Instagram which were analysed by a content analysis method. The theoretical framework in this study consists of Connells (1995, 2008) theory of masculinity. A conception of socialization is also included (Connell 1995, 2009). The results indicated that masculinity norms have a negative impact on men by how they are expected to be, what they are expected to feel, what is allowed for them to talk about, how they should act and what sexual desires they should have. Furthermore, the study showed how masculinity norms lead up to social problems such as reluctance to seek help and using violence against others. The main conclusion of this study was that social problems often are based on the fact that men, due to present masculinity norms, are in need of proving, defending or maintaining their masculinities in different contexts. The man himself along with everyone around him are the one who pays for the consequences of masculinity norms.

• Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
Karläggning av olika intressenters erfarenheter och åsikter av delningsekonomi: - En studie om Airbnb´s påverkan på samhällsaktörer- och befolkning i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The phenomenon of renting out your own home is a trend that has been spread worldwide. From a spatial behavior, human territory has opened in society by making the power over its geographical area accessible to people which the landlord does not need to have any relation to. A business site, based on the sharing economy, which has gained ground today, is Airbnb. This study aims to map out experiences and opinions of the sharing economy and Airbnb from two perspectives, central social actors and the population. A mix of qualitative and quantitative research is made. The study shows that there are differences in experiences and opinions, which have consequences for the population, such as precarious regulations and income declaration. Our research also shows that there is a change in social behavior through the sharing economy, which at best can become a creative development for the population who want to be part of the sharing economy.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
”Jag har fortfarande ont”: Förkroppsligade erfarenheter av smärta och vård vid förlossningsskador2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis explores embodied experiences of (physical and social) pain when seeking healthcare for birth injuries. This includes seeking to understand how gender, sexuality and normality can be constructed through health care for birth injuries, as well as how people with birth injuries are oriented by their pain towards getting health care. The theoretical framework is feminist phenomenological, while also incorporating the perspective of phenomenology and medicine, in order to analyze how the embodied experience of pain is conditioned by normative and cultural dimensions that structure different bodies in different ways. Different ways of understanding the emotional and sensory orientations of pain, both social and physical, are also theoretically informing the analysis. Through qualitative interviews with ten people who have been injured while giving birth within the last ten years, results show that the informants become disoriented when hearing from doctors and midwifes that their perineum, despite their experience of pain, is well. They are also disoriented when their injuries are acknowledged, but deemed untreatable. They can find their pain hard to describe, and experiences of feeling diminished difficult to react against. The embodied experience of seeking health care for birth pain can include feeling both confirmed as well as ignored in one’s injury, depending on what health care professional they happen to meet. I conclude that the frustration of seeking but not feeling like they are receiving health care for their birth injuries results in a breaking point where the patients go against feelings of shame, and (re)orient themselves towards health care by transforming into strong-willed, stubborn and un-ashamed subjects that in one way or another demand treatment and respect.

• Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
Platsens betydelse för praktisk klokhet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Through my own professional experience, the essay explores how place may have significance for exercising practical knowledge. It also sheds light on the conditions and qualities surrounding my, as therapist, presence in interpersonal meetings, as well as perspectives in relation to meetings around life issues. Of special notice is place as nature and garden. With support in stories as representations and in dialogue with philosophers, several different perspectives and analyses are shown about the place's importance for the pursuit of practical knowledge. The drive of the research is supported by three themes, place, body, meeting. They lead the survey forward in dialogue with Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Buber preferably together with geography professor, Edward Relph and researchers and writers within the fields of practical knowledge and naturebased interventions. The essay uncovers a complex area of understanding. It puts emphasis on the relationship between us as humans and our environment. In this relationship, place is of importance to practical knowledge. Interplay and movement between different approaches emerges as a common denominator.

• Ahlzén, Rolf
Rapport av den empiriska delen av projektet The Phenomenology of Suffering in Medicine: Explorations in the Baltic Sea Region vid Södertörns högskola2019Report (Other academic)

Utgångspunkten för det treåriga projektet The Phenomenology of Suffering in Medicine: Explorations in the Baltic Sea Region är den centrala roll lidan­de intar i medicinsk praxis, och därmed också i den medicinska etiken. Den teoretiska grunden för projektet är den breda tradition inom huma­nistisk reflektion och forskning under 1900-talet som innefattar fenome­no­logi, hermeneutik och narrativitet.

I projektets empiriska del har fem medicinska fakulteter runt Östersjön valts ut, delvis beroende på etablerade kontakter, delvis för att på dessa orter pågår intressant undervisning och forskning inom ovan beskrivna fält. Med hjälp av kontaktpersoner på respektive orter har sedan studiebesök genomförts, med informella samtal och formella inter­vjuer. Intervjuerna har analyserats för teman som belyser forsknings­projektets grundläggande fråga om hur fenomenet lidande upp­märk­sam­mas, tolkas och hanteras inom dels medicinsk undervisning och i någon mån även i forskning inom medicinsk humaniora på respektive orter.

• Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
Intäktsredovisning i ett pågående arbete: En kvalitativ studie om tillämpningen av IFRS 15 inom sektorn bostadsutveckling 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The new revenue standard IFRS 15 came as a replacement for all previous revenue standards. The application of the standard has meant that certain industries have had a greater impact, where the real estate industry's sector of residential development is one of them. There are differences in the companies' revenue recognition in this sector after the implementation of IFRS 15 in 2018. The study aims to clarify the differences that exist between residentialdevelopers' revenue recognition. This is because it has been a topic that has been recognized and discussed by many after the implementation. Several residential developers have been criticized for the application of the new standard. The result of the study shows that there are differences in revenue recognition for residential developers after the implementation of IFRS 15. There are differences in the timing of the revenue recognition, the number of performance obligations that have been identified and differences in accounting principles