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  • Lindkvist, Tobias
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Klart klarare med klarspråk?: En textanalytisk jämförelse av Om kriget kommer och Om krisen eller kriget kommer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syfte är att undersöka hur broschyrerna Om kriget kommer (1961) och Om krisen eller kriget kommer (2018) skiljer sig åt språkligt och vad som tyder på att Om krisen eller kriget kommer (2018) är skriven med klarspråk. Ambitionen är att se vilka språkliga förändringar som skett i broschyren, om det finns det skillnader i hur avsändaren och mottagaren framställs och hur texterna anpassas till den breda mottagargruppen.

    Den systemisk-funktionella grammatikens språkmodell (SFG) och Edlings modell för kategorisering av nominala referenter ligger till grund för studiens textanalys. Uppsatsen utgår även från Läsbarhetsindex (LIX) och från de klarspråksideal som handlar om att skriva “vårdat, enkelt och begripligt”.

    Resultatet visar att Om krisen eller kriget kommer (2018) är klarspråksanpassad på många områden och att det speciellt på en språklig nivå syns tydliga skillnader mellan broschyrerna. Många av dessa skillnader och förändringar går att koppla till klarspråksarbete. Vidare dras slutsatsen att många klarspråksråd rör språknivå men ett stort bekymmer i klarspråksarbetet är att mottagaranpassa innehållet till en heterogen mottagargrupp. Uppsatsen identifierar ett behov av klarspråksråd som behandlar textens innehåll för en ytterligare kunskapsutveckling inom klarspråksfältet. Vidare dras metodologiska slutsatser om SFG och LIX som metoder för att undersöka klarspråk.

  • Hedlin, Pontus
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Sociala medier som offentligt politiskt rum: Arendt och Habermas i cyberspace2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following essay aims to investigate recent transformations of the public sphere influenced by social media. The main goal is to use the philosophical frameworks and concepts developed by Arendt and Habermas as an analytic tool to better understand social media in their role as a public sphere.

    The first part outlines the concept of the public sphere and its related concepts as developed in Arendt’s The Human Condition and Habermas’ The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Central themes are discussed and juxtaposed primarily in between Arendt and Habermas, but also with the ideas of later philosophers. From this discussion emerges a theoretical framework in terms of two main headings; the properties of the public sphere, and; the character of the political discourse in the public sphere.

    The second part examines central features of present-day social media utilizing the conceptual framework deriving from Arendt’s and Habermas’ notions of the public sphere. Salient features of contemporary social media and political discourse are juxtaposed with properties of the analytical framework developed in the first part of the essay. The analysis shows that the public sphere and its discourse have changed in significant ways. The analysis also shows that the notion of the public sphere, developed 60 years ago, is still a useful tool for the analysis of our present-day public sphere.

  • Björkqvist, Jenni
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Normbrytande reklam: En multimodal studie av hur språkliga och visuella resurser används i normbrytande reklam2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines two norm-breaking advertising campaigns. Through a sociosemiotic multimodal analysis I have examined a selection of advertising images from two norm-breaking campaigns: Försvarsmakten’s campaign Kom som du är and Arbetsförmedlingen’s campaignGör plats. The purpose of this study was to create a deeper understanding of how norm-breaking advertisement uses verbal and visual resources to affect attitudes and prejudices. To answer this purpose, the study has been based on the following questions: How are prominent participants constructed in norm-breaking advertising? How does image and text interact in order to change attitudes and prejudices? How does the presentation of the prominent participants in the advertising images relate to the overall purpose of the campaign?

    The result of this study indicates that there are patterns regarding how verbal and visual resources are used in the analyzed norm-breaking advertising images. The overall result shows that how the participants are portrayed makes the advertising images both demanding, contact- creating and engaging. Text and image interact in such a way that they both strengthen and complement each other and together they express demands that point toward a desired attitude and social change. The advertising images contains different people represented in a non- stereotyped way which relates well to the overall purpose of the campaigns.

  • Gorgis, Diana
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies.
    Tryggheten och otryggheten i Södertälje: En etnologisk studie om sex stycken ungdomars upplevda trygghet och otrygghet i Södertälje2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to gain insight into how six young men in Södertälje view the security and insecurity in the district. The young people in the study talk about safety in terms of family, friends and home. In relation to this security is the insecurity, crime, “corners”, “places” and various areas in Södertälje such as Gneta, Hovsjö, Fornhöjden, Ronna and Lina Hage. Four of the youths refers to the police in Södertälje as an aspect of their perceived insecurity. This insecurity stems from their ethnicity and residential area (Södertälje). These four young people speak in negative terms when they talk about the police in Södertalje. These young people touch on similar experiences and attitudes that revolves around injustice, discrimination, persecution and control. Five out of six young people in the study can relate negatively to the media's way of presenting Södertälje, especially in the television program '’Södertäljepolisen’’. This program also paints a different picture of the police in Södertälje, which neither the police or the young people in the study can relate to.

  • Vågerö, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Ett dubbelsidigt mynt – IKEA:s identitet internt och externt: en ideationell studie om IKEA:s betydelseskapande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how meaning and value is created in IKEA’s internal and external means of communication. I want to see if the values expressed in the internal and external communication tangent. I will additionally inspect how IKEA present themselves depending on whether the recipients are internal coworkers or external customers. The last thing to be inspected is the internal and external “ideal reader”, which is translated from the Swedish term “modelläsare” (Björkvall 2003). Furthermore, the objective of the study is to contribute to the field of linguistic research. This is done by exposing how values are used to shape different versions of the identity of organizations internally and externally.

    The internal documents consist of a vision and a “värdegrund”, in English called “fundamental values”, and the external communication entails three images from the advertising campaign “Where life happens”. I analyzed the material through the ideational metafunction belonging to the theory of systemic functional grammar and through a sociosemiotic multimodal analysis. The result reveals that nearly all of the expressed values occur both internally and externally. An example of prominent values is togetherness, inclusiveness and openness. However, the way in which IKEA present themselves towards internal and external target audiences varies markedly, as does the constructed ideal reader. The internal ideational representation of IKEA marks the coworker as part of the organization. At the same time multiple demands describing how the coworker should act and think greatly constricts and controls the internal audience. The external recipients, however, are free to be of a varying kind. IKEA expresses how the external target audience includes everyone. As a result, there are no expectations of who the external ideal reader should be, with one exception. The internal and external ideal readers are both part of a community, as contrasting to being portrayed as solitary.

  • Axelsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Västfält, Anna
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Vad får fritidshemspedagogen att gå till jobbet?: En undersökning av vad som motiverar pedagoger i fritidshemmet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and create an understanding of what the educator in the leisure-time center sees as motivating drivers in the workplace. In recent years there has been a large shortage of educators with formal education in and there are major shortcomings in the conditions of the profession. We therefore want to find out what motivates the educator and what factors influence the motivation. To find out, we conducted a quantitative survey study where we turned to working educators in the leisure-time centers. Based on the survey responses, a qualitative in-depth interview study was conducted on the target group of four teachers in leisure-time centers. The data was analyzed on the basis of the social psychological motivation theory, self-determination theory (SDT), which assumes that each individual’s internal motivation is based on three basic needs; the need for autonomy, the need for competence and the need for cohesion.

    The result shows that the social factors in the workplace were of great importance for motivation. The relationship with children and colleagues could be linked to appreciation, confirmation of a job well done and the feeling of being important. We could also see that the degree of education was important for motivation as the educational assignment was perceived as more motivating for the professions with a college degree. In contrary to previous research, it was also found that the educator was not motivated to any great extent by the salary.

  • Lindén, Elinore
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    SKIN: Mångfald och motstånd inom svensk skinheadkultur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This historic study is expanded with a contemporary view. It has interdisciplinary connections to fashion--‐, gender--‐ and postcolonial studies. The analysis is based on interwievs with Swedish skinheads with a wide range of backgrounds and experiences.

    One of the questions answered is which factors creates inclusion versus alienation in relation to the skinhead culture. The sources tell stories about a romanticisation of the workingclass, a homosocial expectation based on gender and a distinct heteronormativity. They also show how some non--‐normative functionalities pass, while others are seen as deviant which creates an alienation from the community.

    Are there any connections between skinhead culture, violence, nationalism and Nazism and if so, how does this show? The image of the skinhead in mass media is heavily coded with Nazism though many of the sources have experienced their subculture as highly diverse. The skinhead get’s to play the role of The Other  in the  Swedish debate on nationalism  and nazism.  To depict skinheads as the ”true” nazis becomes an effective way to make both everyday racism as well as dressy Nazism invisible. Also institutionalized violence, racial profiling and white violence  is made  invisible by this making of The Other.

    How come typical skinhead features have become popular in mainstream culture right now and what does this popularisation do to the subculture? The present political situation creates an aesthetic discussion which  does not limit itself to the subcultural domains.  At a time when skinhead features become mainstream it might take a more extreme expression to continue as sub--‐culture. The heavily charged aesthetics can be used as a subversive tool for shifting power perspectives, this is especially flagrant within the gayskin culture which uses the aesthetics as a camp play with stereotypes.

  • Backman, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Handlingsoffentlighet i delegerad verksamhet: En studie av informationstillgången inom delegerad luftfartsverksamhet på Transportstyrelsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to delegate some of ones activities to other organizations is something that has been used for many years by different types of organizations in different areas. This type of delegation to make use of external knowledge has been found to have many benefits such as improved quality of decision making,shorter decision paths and redistribution of resources to improve processes. Unfortunately, it has also been found that in some activities, delegation can lead to problems with, for example, information access. The purpose of this paper was therefore to investigate whether one authority's delegation of activities to another organization affects access to information based on the concept of public documents. The research questions that formed the basis of the investigation were 1) Are there information losses, based on the concept of public documents, that can arise in connection with the delegated activity, and which are they? and 2) What consequences can information loss have when looking at the principle of public access to official records? This paper has had a qualitative approach where interviews and document studies have been used as methods for gathering information regarding the two research questions. The main conclusion drawn from this thesis is that if the Swedish Transport Agency uses certain types of organizations for delegation of activities, extensive information loss can be incurred regarding information linked to certain parts of its activities and as an authority run the risk of being in conflict with the principle of public access to official records.

  • Soukka, Niklas
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Kan värdegrundsarbetet kommuniceras likvärdigt med kunskapskraven?: En vetenskaplig essä om sökandet efter en pedagogisk blick på utbildning som värdesätter människor som komplexa varelser och inte bara vissa mätbara delar av oss.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my essay, I will explore how, as a primary teacher in a leisure home, I may try to communicate the value base we are to convey equal to the central content. It is in the sign of measurability that the school is now in the approach we applied to the students, that they have also begun to apply to themselves and their fellow human beings. They place their intrinsic value outside themselves and on results and other measurable things. I want to be able to work for them to attribute to them a self-worth and a good self-esteem, regardless of their study results or other measurable things. They live and breathe and it should suffice to acknowledge their existence and worth as fellow human beings. The questions that underlie this essay arose because I felt that we lack a dimension in discussions about the school that can highlight how we as teachers work with motivation or self-esteem. After all, trying to get students to approach new things they can't yet and trust in their own and the common life is, after all, perhaps the most important thing we can work on. I used two dilemmas where the students in their everyday situations at school express their despair and frustration at not really feeling that they are worth living as they are. I will then, through my questions, try to find out if there is any way to find a better way to equip them for life and its challenges. I start from a hermeneutic perspective to emphasize the importance of self-reflection as an important part of being able to meet and deal with myself, subject and object at the same time. I have chosen to use Gert Biesta's thoughts on what functions are at play when we talk about education. He wants us to focus on what these functions do for us so that we can discuss what is desirable based on it and not by simply looking at "what works" and what can be measured. Together with Biesta, Hannah Arendt's thoughts on the active life helps me in my search for an educational look at education that values people as complex beings and not just certain measurable parts of us.

  • Mbuyi, Ruddy
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Who are the visitors to the National Museum in Stockholm?Sweden's museum of art and design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research study was to find about who the National Museum visitors are and what is their five reasons and motives to visit the National Museum. To get a better understanding about finding out who are the National Museum visitors a qualitative method was used in the form of a questionnaire that dealt with questions about the respondent’s demographic background and open questions related to finding out more details about the respondents’ reasons to visit the National Museum that is an art and design museum. The data that was gathered from the questionnaire was analysed through the use of a thematic analysis to find specific themes based on the female and male respondent’s answers. The results indicate that most of the respondents who took part in the questionnaire on the 5th of April 2019 at the National Museum are a mix of female and male between the age 20-72 years from Sweden and other countries, all of them have a higher education (High School, Bachelor and Master Degree) and have studied art, history of art or design. The reason that many of the respondents choose to visit the museum and what attracted them to the National Museum was foremost for they all share an interest in art and design. The National Museum itself is an interesting place to be at because many of the female and male respondents have an appreciation in the art and design collections and exhibitions that is displayed at the museum. The National Museum offers a free admission and entry so many of them could visit the museum either by themselves or with a companion, and many of the respondents like how the National Museum teaches history about the art and design.

  • Alm, Marcus
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Vägskälet mellan två uppdrag – Elever i behov av stöd eller fritidshemmet: En utforskande essä om pliktens och den praktiska kunskapens inverkan på fritidshemsuppdraget2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”To drift towards old habits” is an exploratory essay in which I examined how my practical knowledge and morally based duties affected my actions and how those led to a hard-assessed situation where I stood without knowing right from wrong. The dilemma laid in that I didn’t know whether my approach should have been based on my gathered experience and knowledge or have based on the rules and framework of the new work assignment I had accepted. By the figuration of two self-experienced situations I portrayed my work and practical knowledge through the first one, in which my assignment was to work with a student in need of extra support. That lead on to the second figuration, where this knowledge, in combination with a sense of duty, influenced my course of action even though my work assignment had changed to be a leisure time pedagogue.

    The main perspectives in this essay were therefore to be focused on an interpretation of practical knowledge and on how the ethics of duties are constructed. With these two perspectives my purpose was to explore how I could relate my choices of actions according to these and how they could come to affect future repertoires of actions.

  • Brandels, August
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Holm, Sonia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar efterfrågan på kollektivtrafiken i Stockholm?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have concluded that a well-developed public transport system is mandatory for sustainable growth; economic, social and environmental. This study discusses demand elasticities on public transport which is an important aspect for deciding public policies. This subject has been studied in several countries and cities since the 80s, but the findings from the studies show that the elasticity varies, and no general conclusion can be drawn. Since there is no general model, we need separate studies for each area of interest.

    In this study we concentrate on Stockholm county. The independent variables that have been analyzed are: price of travel pass, average income, and gasoline prices. By using these variables, price- income- and cross price elasticity of demand have been estimated. There are two different dependent variables, both the number of boardings and the number of travel passes sold. A log-linear function regression analysis is used to originate the different elasticities for each independent variable.

    The result shows that the price elasticity on the number of boardings is -0,348, which is nearly inelastic and matches what earlier studies have concluded. Though, the price elasticity for number of boardings is negative, the price elasticity for travel passes sold is positive which makes the result harder to interpret. The income elasticity for numbers of travel passes sold is +67 and for commuter train it is +54. For tram it is the complete opposite of -57 which shows a contradiction between the two different ways of travelling. The high coefficients also show that the income elasticity is very elastic in comparison to the other originated elasticities in this study. The cross elasticity of demand for the total number of boardings and gasoline price has a value of +0,08. Similar to price elasticity, the cross-price elasticity is nearly inelastic and follows the results from previous studies.

  • Koenitz, Hartmut
    et al.
    HKU University of the Arts Utrecht, Utrecht, The Nederlands.
    Eladhari, Mirjam Palosaari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Teaching Game System Building as an Artistic Practice2019In: Teaching Games: Pedagogical Approaches: DiGRA 2019 Pre-Conference Workshop, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this vision paper, we posit ‘game system building’ as a paradigm for game design. Inspired by earlier perspectives on cybernetic art and generative art we consider the creation of dynamic game systems as an artistic practice where the consideration of complex and often unpredictable behavior and effects are as foundational as the individual elements (rules, graphics, characters, UI etc.). The perspective of ‘game system building’ has important implications for the education of designers and games scholars. In this paper, we introduce the paradigm and its lineage and propose an educational approach that reflects ‘game system building’.

  • Eladhari, Mirjam Palosaari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    TOG: An Innovation Centric Approach to teaching Computational Expression and Game Design2019In: Teaching Games: Pedagogical Approaches: DiGRA 2019 Pre-Conference Workshop, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design approach TOG (standing for Technology, Ontology, and Game Genre), and how it can be used in teaching game design and technologies enabling computational expression. TOG, inspired by the processes of AI Based Game Design, was conceptualized when teaching a course on computational expression at the University of Malta. The main aim with teaching with the approach was to facilitate innovation and to prompt students to expand their palette of methods for computational expression as game designers

  • Hall, Adrian M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ebert, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Goodfellow, Bradley W
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Hättestrand, Clas
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Heyman, Jakob
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Krabbendam, Maarten
    British Geological Survey.
    Moon, Seulgi
    University of California, Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences.
    Stroeven, Arjen P
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Past and future impact of glacial erosion in Forsmark and Uppland: final report2019Report (Refereed)
  • Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Plant response to habitat amount and configuration in Swedish forests2019In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is an intense debate about whether habitat fragmentation has a negative or positive effect on biodiversity. We examined whether species richness and incidence of forest plants were negatively or positively associated with fragmented forest configuration. We also analysed whether the results support the fragmentation threshold hypothesis with fragmentation effects only in landscapes with small habitat amount.

    Location: Sodermanland province, south-eastern Sweden (8,388 km(2)).

    Methods: Data consisted of plant distribution maps and landscape data on forest amount and configuration in 2.5 km x 2.5 km quadrats. We carried out models including forest area together with clumpiness index (CL models) or edge density (ED models) as the measure of habitat configuration. We focused on plant taxa with positive association between incidence and forest area (163 taxa in CL models; 119 taxa in ED models).

    Results: Responses to fragmented configuration were negative more often than by random (33 and 22 taxa in CL and ED models, respectively; includes only models without significant forest area x configuration interaction), whereas positive responses were rare (four taxa in both models). When forest area x configuration interaction was significant, the most common response had a negative effect of fragmented configuration when forest area was low and no effect of configuration when forest area was high, which agrees with the fragmentation threshold hypothesis. Species richness also had this type of response. In another common interactive response, the effect of fragmented configuration was negative at low forest area and positive at high forest area.

    Main conclusions: Responses to fragmented forest configuration, when significant, were usually negative. When responses to fragmented configuration were modulated by forest area, they were negative when forest area was low. The findings of complex interaction between forest area and configuration have implications for selection of appropriate patch sizes in sustainable forest management.

  • Lindqvist, Josefin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Bland leksakspistoler, spindelväv och mellanstadiebarn: En vetenskaplig essä om vad meningsfull fritid innebär i förhållande till elevinflytande och lärande i en öppen fritidsverksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines what a meaningful leisure-time could mean, in relation to pupils’ participation and learning. I have investigated the wording of the statement which says that children should be giving a meaningful leisure time, progress and learning. Is this possible, or does this statement contradict itself? What does a meaningful leisure-time really mean, and to whom? To examine this, I will describe two situations that occurred at my work place, a leisure-time centre for 10-13 -year-old children. The first story will describe a situation that I find relatively well working as a democratic process where some children want to organise a war activity for the other children, and I contemplate if that could be considered a meaningful leisure-time? In the second story, I describe a kind of chaotic situation, where a group of children are preparing an activity for other children. Time is hereof the essence and I contemplate if the children are having a meaningful time and if the situation spurs their progress in this stressful situation.

    I start with examining the two stories out of different perspectives: how to understand what meaningfulness is, the importance of coherency to experience purpose and how leisure-time has been interpreted over the years with regards to society and education. Further, I examine in what way student participation and democracy relate to both of my stories. I would also like to understand how and where learning is applicable in my stories. Therefore, I have chosen to also examine how the interaction between myself and the children contribute to their progress. Finally, I try to get a bigger picture on where the three aspects, meaningful leisure-time, progress and learning come together to create a wider perspective, that gives me a greater understanding for the mission of the leisure- time centre and for my occupation.

  • Milles, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    FI och "könsprefixet man": Könsneutralt språk i kommunpolitiken2019In: Svenskansbeskrivning 36: Förhandlingar vid trettiosjätte sammankomsten. Uppsala 2–7oktober 2017 / [ed] Bianchi,Marco, Håkansson, David, Melander, Björn, Pfister, Linda, Westman, Maria &Östman, Carin (red.):, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2019, p. 155-166Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Stagnell, Alexander
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric.
    An Alliance of War and Peace: Europe and the Necessity of Diplomacy2020In: Crisis and Critique, ISSN 2311-8172, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 194-213Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay seeks to approach the current tensions within the European Union through the lens of the philosophy on perpetual peace. Beginning with Kant’s pamphlet On Perpetual Peace and his depiction of it as “an infinite process of gradual approximation”, the text moves through Hegel’s concept of the necessity of war in order to develop an understanding of the emergence of war between modern nation states. Finally, it approaches Derrida’s critique of both Hegel and Kant as well as his own understanding of the conditions for peace in Europe, in an attempt to provide an explanation for the tensions haunting the EU during the last two decades.  

  • Anturi, Nathalia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kozma, Jonathan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Förhållandet mellan CSR och förtroende: En studie över hur Sveriges banksektor kan skapa förtroende genom kommunikation av CSR2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern-day society demands a high-level of responsibility from all of its participants when it comes to the sustainable development. The civic duty is an important part of corporate culture which is why many corporations today are positioning their priorities towards CSR, Corporate Social Responsibility. CSR is a concept which depicts how companies are supporting the sustainable development. The increased level of consumer awareness relating to this concept is the reason why more companies are applying CSR in order to achieve the competitive advantages, such as good reputation, trust, and a positive company image. A paradox manifests from the use of CSR, however, since it contributes to a greater scrutiny and skepticism towards how companies are utilizing CSR as a public relations tool, which people generally feel is neither genuine nor based on public interest.

    Therefore, while communicating their CSR strategies, companies must be careful since it can either strengthen or weaken the consumer trust, depending how the communication is perceived by the general public. The consumer trust is extremely important during high risk- and involvement decisions. This concept is particularly important within the bank industry. When it comes to applying CSR, studies indicate that the different banks in Sweden are not performing as well compared to international banks. Another study suggests that one out of four consumers is unaware of whether their bank is utilizing sustainable efforts or not.

    This study aims to map and identify what strategies of CSR communication that the Swedish bank sector use, and which of these that can build consumer trust. The research methodology is based on a triangulation which conducts both a qualitative and quantitative method. Three semi structured interviews with three different banks have been applied to identify and acquire a deeper understanding of the communication by the Swedish bank sector and their CSR efforts. Afterwards, data from consumers has been collected throughout a survey to understand how the consumers perceive the communication of the CSR effort by the Swedish bank sector.

    Based on collected empirical data and analysis, the study has been able to identify two CSR communication strategies that the Swedish bank sector employs which build consumer trust.

    • The swedish bank sector communicates their CSR effort by interacting and engaging in an open discourse which increases the consumer trust.
    • The swedish bank sector communicates their CSR effort by a high degree of communication, which indirectly increases the consumer trust.○ A high degree of communication of CSR effort reduce the consumer skepticism, which increases the consumer trust.
  • Amato, M
    et al.
    De Negri, E
    University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Siri, Anna
    Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education in Europe2019In: Do Well Science: Manual for Innovative Pedagoy in STEM Contents : An Erasmus+ Project to increase secondary students’ achievements in Science subjects / [ed] Massimo Amato & Anna Siri, Breslavia: Società Dante Alighieri , 2019, p. 10-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lindqvist, Beatriz
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Förskolans utvecklingssamtal: Om motstridiga logiker i ett institutionaliserat möte2019In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, no 3-4, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses how conflicting logics emanated from different discourses are articulated in parent-teacher conferences in a Swedish preschool. Preschool teachers' reporting of collective learning processes is interrupted by parents' demands for information about their child's individual performance. When parents act as customers in the preschool meeting, pedagogical matters tend to capitulate for the preschool's need to assert itself in a market. The educators express an ambtion to fulfill educational goals. However, in the meetings with parents they are forced to reconcile contradictory logics that intersect preschool as institution in a increasingly competitive education market.

  • Palm, Veronica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, MARIS (Maritime Archaeological Research Institute). Västerviks Museum.
    Rönnby, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, MARIS (Maritime Archaeological Research Institute). Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archaeology.
    Bolin, Hans
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archaeology.
    Stäket vid Valstad: Arkeologisk provundersökning etapp 2, Kallåker 4:4, Gamleby socken, Västerviks kommun, Kalmar län, Småland2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spring 2018, Södertörn University and MARIS, in collaboration with Västerviks Museum, conducted a second archaeological research survey at Stäket, Kallåker 4:4 in Gamleby socken, Västervik municipality, Kalmar County, Småland. At the survey a trenchs were dug on land in connection with a previously known “pole blockage” in the water of Dynestadviken at a place called Stäket. The trench was placed in line with a previously excavated stone construction situated close to the level of the Viking age shore line.

    The stone “cairn-like” construction lays in line with a timber construction in the water. The 2018 trench was placed in the upper part of the stone construction, 10 m up the beach slope, close to the test trench dug in 2016. The aim was to collect more data regarding the stone structure, it´s construction and use. Among the findings are flint fragments, horseshoe nails, coins and a clay pipe, all with a span from the 11th century to the 19th century.

    During late Viking period, the place for the site was the most topographical strategic part of the waterway between the bay of Gamlebyviken and the protected inner water around Dynestadsjön. The choice of place gives an indication that the construction during this time is linked to strategy and protection of the rich Iron Age homeland north of the construction.

    Several of the upright standing poles, both in the water and on land have previously been dated to late Iron age, but there are also some poles and planks from late Medieval/Early Modern period. New findings from 2018 confirm some sort of activities in the area in the 18th and 19th centuries, probably fishing.

    The exact function of the constructions at Stäket cannot be said at the present time and   there are several possible functions. The most obvious interpretation is to see it as a blockage defending the inlet, but there is also a possibility that the remains we know about today actually are a part of a larger harbour arrangement. Other possibilities which can’t be excluded is that the construction could have been used for fishing or that some of the poles are remains of a bridge over the narrow inlet. Combinations of these different functions are of course also possible. Considering the different dating and the mix of wooden material is also very likely that the use and function of the place have changed during history.

  • Rizzo Enqvist, Daniela
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Formativ återkoppling i matematikundervisningen i årskurs 4–6: En undersökning om lärarnas återkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that summative feedback has a negative effect on pupils’ learning, because the feedback given lacks information sufficient to pupils. This compared to formative feedback which has shown positive results on pupils learning (William 2019). Despite the positive research results, it is problematic to implement the method in to practical teaching (Grevholm 2012).

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how formative feedback is used in mathematical teaching for grades 4-6 in Swedish schools. The study aims to answer the following questions: How is formative- and summative feedback in mathematics given? How is verbal feedback in mathematics used?

    This study has used the qualitative methods observation and interview to get a deeper insight of individual choices made by teachers. To analyze the collected materials, the theory of formative feedback in different levels have been used.

    The results show that the most common used formative feedback was in a verbal form. Verbal formative feedback was preferred since it involves direct communication, seldomly misunderstood. The results also show that written formative feedback was rarely given because it was considered time-consuming. Verbal formative feedback was mostly given to the pupils on a self-regulation level.

  • Sommer, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Processes and factors governing benthic community dynamics—environmental change in the Baltic Sea2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As drivers of biogeochemical cycles and nutrient recycling, such as carbon turnover, the microbial community is essential in sustaining functioning ecosystems. Together with the metazoan community, the microbial community constitute the majority of all life in the benthos. Environmental change in biotic and abiotic factors may influence the dynamics of these communities, for example through a sorting or driving effect on the community structure through assembly processes. Environmental change, e.g. change in dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity and temperature, can directly or indirectly affect community composition. How, in what way, and to what extent, benthic bacterial and meiofaunal community composition in the eutrophied, brackish benthic environments, in the Baltic Sea sub-basin the Baltic Proper, respond to environmental change is understudied, both at local and seascape scale. This thesis aimed to study and understand the effects of environmental variation on the diversity and biogeographic patterns of Baltic Sea sediment bacterial and meiofaunal communities. A further aim was to understand the links between the different community levels by studying the interaction between meiofaunal- and macrofaunal communities in relation to environmental variation. Community diversity was analysed along a latitudinal transect of national environmental monitoring stations in the Baltic Proper using a framework of metapopulation and metacommunity theory. The analyses were based on environmental genomics, with high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics

    and statistics. The total community genome was analysed using phylogenetic marker gene fragments as a proxy for taxonomic diversity, to investigate diversity, community structure and dynamics. Salinity and oxygen were found to be the main abiotic environmental drivers of benthic community composition and alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. Furthermore, macrofauna-meiofauna interactions were significantly more complex in higher salinity environments. Results also showed that both enhanced environmental gradients and dispersal following a major inflow of saline and oxygenated water from the Atlantic Ocean, influenced the composition of sediment bacterial communities at the seascape scale of the Baltic Sea, as shown by a reduced beta-diversity and increased alpha-diversity, and the development of a significant distance-decay of community similarity. This study also identified strong metapopulation dynamics of the benthic sediment bacterial communities with many satellite and a few core taxa. The outcomes from this study contribute to the understanding of how environmental variation and environmental change relate to changes in Baltic Sea benthic community diversity and composition, and important factors and processes governing community dynamics.

  • Karimi, Sheyma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Water Dilemma in Isfahan and International Tourists’ effect on it2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is one of the leading industries, in terms of international trading between countries. In addition to receipts received at destinations, international tourism has also generated US$211 billion in exports through international passenger transport services. The study is conducted in Isfahan, a city in center of Iran. The city is unique in its cultural heritage and archeology. It is one of Iran's oldest cities at more than 1,500 years of age. An important cultural and commercial center, Isfahan is Iran's third largest metropolitan area. Isfahan experiences an arid climate, like the rest of the Iranian plateau with low rainfall. Isfahan has a high capacity to attract international tourists to provide a better understanding of Iran’s history, culture, and natural environment to the world. Zayandeh Rud which means “life-giving River” is the largest Iranian plateau and the most important surface water in Isfahan. It starts from Zagros Mountains and ends in the Gavkhouni Swamp, a seasonal salt lake in the southeast of Isfahan. The catchment area has been affected by two drought periods within the last 15 years. Decreasing surface and groundwater availability has been accompanied by an increase in water withdrawal for irrigation, domestic uses, industry, and water transfers to neighboring provinces. This has led to severe ecological and social consequences. This study identifies the potentials of Isfahan in attracting international tourists and also evaluate the water crisis that the city faces. The research is based on qualitative method. The primary data is gathered through face to face and phone interviews and questionnaires. The results show some finding solutions to water crisis in Isfahan and some suggestions for improving tourism industry in the city.

  • Hallsäter, Julia
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Är gymnasiet och högskolan två parallella världar?: En undersökning om gymnasielärares och högskolelärares förväntningar på kunskaper och färdigheter hos elever och studenter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt intresse för övergången från gymnasium till högre studier väcktes på en lokal skolkonferens där gymnasie- och universitetslärare diskuterade ämnet. En artikel i Lärarnas tidning, Skolverkets rapport från 2005 med titeln Väl förberedd? och rapporter om nyblivna studenters kunskaper i början av sina högre studier i såväl Sverige som andra länder visade att det här är en världsomspännande diskussion. Som teori till uppsatsen valde jag Carl D. Liggios The expectation gap in auditing. Teorin beskriver gapet mellan vad den som levererar en bestämd produkt anser sig ha fått beställning på och vad mottagaren förväntar sig att produkten ska vara. Mitt syfte med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka om det finns ett eventuellt förväntningsgap mellan hur högskolelärare och gymnasielärare ser på sina studenters/ elevers kunskaper och färdigheter. Jag har använt en enkät med samma frågor till båda lärargrupperna för att kunna jämföra hur de ställer sig till allmänna kunskaper och färdigheter och hur studenterna/ eleverna klarar att använda dem i ämnesspecifika sammanhang när de studerar samhällsekonomi respektive samhällsvetenskap.

    Urvalgruppen för min undersökning var lektorer, professorer, filosofie doktorer och doktorander inom ämnena företagsekonomi, nationalekonomi, sociologi och statsvetenskap på Södertörns högskola. Enkäterna skickades ut till 55 personer som resulterade i 17 svar. Gymnasieskolorna valdes ut enligt närhetsprincipen. De ligger alla inom Södertörns högskolas upptagningsområde: Huddinge gymnasium, Östra gymnasiet, Sjödalsgymnasiet, Tumba gymnasium och Tullinge gymnasium. Enkäterna skickades till lärare som undervisade i ämnena samhällsvetenskap, ekonomi, sociologi och entreprenörskap. Enkäterna skickades ut till 45 personer och totalt fick jag 10 svar. Undersökningsmetoden var kvantitativ. Jag utformade en enkät utifrån Gymnasieskolans läroplan. Jag valde frågor både utifrån läroplanens övergripande mål och examensmål inom samhällsvetenskap och ekonomiprogrammet på gymnasiet i utformningen av enkäten. Resultatet är starkt påverkat av bortfallet främst den låga svarsfrekvensen av gymnasielärare.

    Högskolelärarnas svar tyder på att det finns ett förväntningsgap. Man skattar genomgående studenternas kunskaper och färdigheter lågt och allra tydligast gällande vetenskapligt förhållningssätt och centrala begrepp, teorier och modeller och att presentera sina resultat på ett vetenskapligt sätt. Svaret på min forskningsfråga måste bli att högskolelärarna inte anser att studenterna är väl förberedda. Svaren indikerar inte stor kris men att det finns stora brister.Gymnasielärarnas bedömningar är något mer positiva. Svaret på min fråga om gymnasielärarnas uppfattning om elevernas kunskaper och förmågor på de punkter som jag har bedömt har relevans för högskolestudier blir att gymnasielärarna är mer nöjda än högskolelärarna. De ser också brister men bedömer dem inte som lika stora som högskolelärarna gör. För att använda terminlogin från min teorikan man säga att gymnasielärarna i något högre utsträckning anser att de levererar det som är målet för deras undervisning på de studieförberedande programmen än vad högskolelärarna anser.

  • Selling, Anton
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Att läsa i en tid med brist på tid: En studie av fyra lärares perspektiv gällande läsläxor och vad de anser krävs för att deras elever ska få tillräckligt med tid till läsning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to find time to read books today, when many other media compete for your spare time. Is the time that pupils get to read in schools enough to make them proficient readers? In Sweden some teachers debate that the homework is a solution to find more time for the pupils to read, while others debate that avoiding homework will make their teaching more equivalent. According to a research paper from Eckerholm (2018), the lack of time is one factor which makes it sometimes difficult for teachers to help their pupils develop a proficient reading comprehension. 

    The purpose of this study is to examine four elementary teacher’s perspective on reading homework and what they experience is required to find their students time to read. The study also contains a supplementary study of a larger number of pupils’ reading habits and who they believe have authority over their leisure reading. The study will answer the following scientific questions:

    • How do four elementary teacher reason about giving reading homework to their pupils to read at their leisure time?
    • How do four elementary teacher reason about what is required of themselves and their pupils to find the time they need to develop into proficient readers?
    • What do elementary pupils answer to questions about their reading habits in their free time?
    • What do elementary pupils answer to questions about who they believe  have authority over their leisure reading?

    The entire study is about increasing and develop a better understanding of the subject, according to a hermeneutic perspective. This study used mainly the qualitative method of interviews with elementary teachers and includes a supplementary study that uses the quantitative method of a paper survey of pupils reading habits and who they believe  have authority over their leisure reading time. The results of this study have been analysed using both sociocultural theory and motivation theory and the research from other sources.

    The result of this study shows that the interviewed teachers are primarily to sceptical to the home conditions of their pupils to use reading homework. The four interviewed teachers feel that it is more efficient to motivate and inspire their pupils to help them find their internal motivation to read in their own time, without the need to be forced by any teacher or parent. This require the students to take responsibility of their own reading at home. The results of the supplementary study show that most of the pupils that participated in the survey read books at home, they have authority over their leisure reading and that they read with an internal motivation. But the time they spend reading books is not enough. The interviewed teachers all mentioned that their pupils do not read enough on their free time and would need the children to receive support from their parents. The conclusion of the study is that the interviewed teachers feel sceptical towards that every pupil have a proper reading culture at home, which would give these children the time they need to develop into a proficient reader.

  • Robazza Leijonhielm, Agnès
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Det handlar liksom om hur allt hänger ihop i en enda länk": En studie om hur tre historielärare i årskurs 4 och 5 använder historiska narrativ i syfte att bidra till elevernas historiemedvetande2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to see how three history teachers in year 4 and 5 uses historical narratives in order to bring their students historical consciousness. In order to investigate this, two questions were formulated:

    1. To what extent and how do history teachers in three middle school classes use Jörn Rüsen’s principals by historical narration bring historical consciousness to their pupils?
    2.  How do teachers define Historical consciousness?

    These questions are answered by observing six history lessons in three different schools in different parts of Stockholm and interviewing the teachers afterwards. The outcome of these observations and interviews has been analysed using the three principals for historical consciousness by historical narration Memory, Continuity and Function and the theories of historical consciousness by Jörn Rüsen. This theory has then been further developed to better suit the study and illustrate further results.

    The conclution of this study shows that the teachers in these three classes have three different definitions of the term Historical consciousness and that they only bring historical consciousness by historical narration to their pupils a few times.

  • Sjöberg, Jens
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lotthagen, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Uppbyggnaden av ett personligt varumärke är en resa, inte en destination: En kvalitativ studie om personliga varumärken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to build knowledge about how young athletes can build their personal brand.

    Methodology: The study uses a qualitative approach in order to answer the research questions and the purpose of the study with a systematic literature review, to identify key factors for building a strong personal brand and apply these on a young athletes personal brand.

    Empiricism and analysis: The empirical results is based on the literature review of former research, which has been carefully evaluated and analyzed inductively from marketing theories to identify themes to serve the purpose and research questions of the study. The empirical results has been compared with autobiographies of known athletes.

    Findings: This study identifies five key factors within building your personal brand for a young athlete; identity, image, trust, strategy and reflection. These key factors create a circular model where the journey is most important, not the destination. The authors of this study suggest that new research can build upon the model and implement it on a young athlete where the findings could prove to be useful in practise, not only in theory.

  • Celep Agrali, Ebru
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Läsförståelse med lässvaga elever: En kvalitativ studie om hur fyra SO-lärare i grundskolans mellanår arbetar i läsförståelse för att stödja elever med lässvårigheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how four different teachers in the social sciences subjects in elementary school work with reading comprehension to support their pupils with reading difficulties. The research questions for this study are:

    • Which structures do the teachers in social sciences subject use to support pupils with reading difficulties?
    • How do the teachers in social sciences subject describe the concept of reading difficulties?
    • What additional support do the pupils with reading difficulties receive?

    Two methods have been used to answer the research questions. Four teachers were interviewed and observed. Lev Vygotskij’s sociocultural perspective was used for the theoretical point of the study. 

    The results of this study show that the four teachers all use similar methods to help pupils’ develop their reading skills. They work to develop pupils’ vocabulary range by for example supporting structures such as text calls. When the four teachers described the concept of reading difficulties, they all mentioned dyslexia as a common cause of reading difficulties. 

    In addition, the four teachers mentioned that pupils receive additional support from special needs teachers who help them.

  • Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jäppinen, Armas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    An endangered regional cuisine in Sweden: the decline in use of European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus (L., 1758), as food stuff2019In: Journal of Ethnic Foods, ISSN 2352-6181, E-ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Only a handful freshwater fish species are still commercially sought after in Sweden. Subsistence fishing in lakes and rivers is also rare nowadays and has in general been replaced by recreational fishing. However, fishing for European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus (L.), once popular in many areas of central Sweden, has survived into the twenty-first century, particularly in the province of Värmland, as a minor, but interesting regional food speciality. It is a dish with character, since smelt has a very particular scent and it is therefore esteemed by some and rejected by others. Nowadays, it is eaten locally, especially by the elder generations, and attempts to popularize it as a regional food have so far failed. However, smelt deserves to be marketed as a regional culinary specialty, and has great potential to become popular among modern foodies. A traditional dish known as “smelt pancake” can be promoted. Interesting enough, there are new categories of smelt enthusiasts that have discovered the possibility of fishing in large numbers in spring, especially Thai and other immigrants. There are also a significant numbers of sojourners and visitors from the Baltic States, especially Lithuanians, fishing for smelt in Värmland.

  • Lejon, Rebecca
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Robotar som svär eller har läppglansfingrar: Genusgestaltningar i två skönlitterära verk för mellanåldern och deras anpassning i svenskundervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine, from a gender perspective, fictional books self-selected by middle-aged children. The aim of this is to test how these books function in Swedish studies to promote equality between students. In order to help investigate the purpose, two issues have been formulated: “Which fictional books do middle-aged children read today?” and “How do these books portray gender?”

    The method that is used is a quantitative survey where students in year 5 answered which fiction book is their favorite. Based on the answer from the survey a top-three list of the books girls, and boys, has named as their favorite have been compiled. The book that ended up at the top of each list has been reviewed and analyzed from a gender perspective, which is the theory that is infusing the entire study. The results of the study showed that gender patterns and gender stereotypes are a common occurrence in the books. The gender patterns that emerge are a division between the sexes where men are over-represented. The same type of gender patterns also appeared in the areas of activities and qualities where boys are portrayed as active, violent and rational, while girls are portrayed as passive, emotional and caring. In conclusion, this study urges that it is important for teachers to have an idea of how the most self-selected fiction books portray gender, because the books middle-aged children prefer to read do not brake traditional gender patterns. The books that have been analyzed in this study are Glasbarnen by Kristina Ohlsson and Dagbok för alla mina fans: Gregs bravader by Jeff Kinney.  

  • Leyland, Klara
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Vi kan ju inte bara dutta med lite jämställdhet och tänka att vi är klara där - vi behöver fokus!": En kvalitativ studie om fem lärares didaktiska val vad gäller undervisning om genus och jämställdhet utifrån det centrala innehållet i ämnet samhällskunskap2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how five social studies teachers in Stockholm County incorporate gender and equality into the core content of the social studies syllabus in year 4-6.  It will also address the didactic choices the teachers make to transform the curriculum content into practical education.

    To investigate this purpose, three questions were formulated:

    1. What do five social studies teachers consider essential for students to learn in order to address gender and equality in the social studies syllabus for years 4-6? 

    2. How does the written content of the syllabus transform into practical education; what didactic choices do the teachers make?

    3. According to the teachers, what part does gender and equality play in social studies education?

    In order to examine these questions, two qualitative research methods, interviews and observations were used. The outcomes have been analysed using an analytical tool inspired by two previous tools used in earlier didactic research studies, which have been developed further and combined for the purpose of this study. The analytical tool allows skills to be categorised as either first order knowledge (knowledge based on facts on a specific subject); or second order knowledge (more general skills such as analysing skill, ability to see phenomena from different perspectives etc).

    The conclusion of the study indicates that social studies teachers find it difficult to interpret the content of the syllabus to adequately address gender and equality, and that this content does not always have a clear part in social studies education. 

  • Burman, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    Martha Nussbaum and Liberal Education2019In: Martha Nussbaum: Ancient Philosophy, Civic Education and Liberal Humanism / [ed] Anders Burman & Synne Myrebøe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Myrebøe, Synne
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    Martha Nussbaum and Heraclitus: Early Notions on Interpretation2019In: Martha Nussbaum: Ancient Philosophy, Civic Education and Liberal Humanism / [ed] Anders Burman & Synne Myrebøe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019, p. 15-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Falk, Martin
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway (USN) , Bø, Norway / Shanghai Lixin University of Accounting and Finance, Shanghai, China.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Time-varying impact of snow depth on tourism in selected regions2019In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a time-varying model that provides new evidence on the changing relationship between domestic overnight stays of selected winter sport destinations and natural snow conditions. A Kalman filter method combined with wavelet-based multiresolution analysis (MRA) is employed to investigate the relationships in intervals between 2 and 4 and up to 16-32 months. The model is applied to domestic overnight stays for selected mountain regions in Sweden (Dalarna and Jämtland), Norway (Buskerud, Hedmark, Hordaland and Oppland) and Austria (Salzburg and Tyrol). Results show that the sensitivity of domestic overnight stays on natural snow conditions varies markedly depending on location, time period and frequency band window used in the estimation. The medium-run relation for Tyrol and Salzburg is significantly declining over time, while in Norway and Sweden, the same relationship is generally volatile and not significant at the end of the sample period. In the short run, none of the regions exhibits a link between domestic overnight stays and snow depth fluctuations.

  • Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Haftor, D.
    Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, M.
    Bestwood AB.
    Chowdhury, S.
    Linnaeus University.
    Sustainability through the digitalization of industrial machines: Complementary factors of fuel consumption and productivity for forklifts with sensors2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 23, article id 6708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the fuel efficiency of industrial machines through digitalization can enable the transport and logistics sector to overcome challenges such as low productivity growth and increasing CO2 emissions. Modern digitalized machines with embedded sensors that collect and transmit operational data have opened up new avenues for the identification of more efficient machine use. While existing studies of industrial machines have mostly focused on one or a few conditioning factors at a time, this study took a complementary approach, using a large set of known factors that simultaneously conditioned both the fuel consumption and productivity of medium-range forklifts (n = 285) that operated in a natural industrial setting for one full year. The results confirm the importance of a set of factors, including aspects related to the vehicles' travels, drivers, operations, workload spectra, and contextual factors, such as industry and country. As a novel contribution, this study shows that the key conditioning factors interact with each other in a non-linear and non-additive manner. This means that addressing one factor at a time might not provide optimal fuel consumption, and instead all factors need to be addressed simultaneously as a system. © 2019 by the authors.

  • Sundén, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Paasonen, S.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Inappropriate Laughter: Affective Homophily and the Unlikely Comedy of #MeToo2019In: Social Media + Society, ISSN 2056-3051, E-ISSN 2056-3051, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the affective and ambiguous dynamics of feminist humor as an unexpected strategy of resistance in connection with #MeToo, asking what laughter may do to the sharpness of negative affect of shame and anger driving the movement. Our inquiry comes in three vignettes. First, we deploy Nanette—Hannah Gadsby’s 2018 Netflix success heralded as the comedy of the #MeToo era—arguing that the uniform viral warmth surrounding the show drives the emergence of networked feminisms through “affective homophily,” or a love of feeling the same. With Nanette, the contagious qualities of laughter are tamed by a networked logic of homophily, allowing for intensity while resisting dissent. Our second vignette zooms in on a less known feminist comedian, Lauren Maul, and her online #MeToo musical comedy riffing off on apologies made by male celebrities accused of sexual harassment, rendering the apologies and the men performing them objects of ridicule. Our third example opens up the door to the ambivalence of irony. In considering the unexpected pockets of humor within the #MeToo scandal that ripped apart the prestigious institution of the Swedish Academy, we explore the emergence of carnivalesque comedy and feminist uses of irony in the appropriation of the pussy-bow blouse as an ambiguous feminist symbol. Our examples allow us to argue for the political importance of affective ambiguity, difference, and dissent in contemporary social media feminisms, and to highlight the risk when a movement like #MeToo closes ranks around homogeneous feelings of not only shame and rage, but also love. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • Sjödin, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Nej, jag vill inte! Det är så pinsamt att säga fel.: En kvalitativ observationsstudie om hur lärare gör för att motivera elever till att våga och vilja prata engelska på engelskalektionerna i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's schools many pupils in grades 4-6 do not want to or dare to speak English in English lessons. For various reasons, they find it embarrassing not being able to answer in the target language, not knowing what to say or how to pronounce a word.

    The purpose of this study is to find out how Swedish teachers work to motivate pupils to speak English in English lessons at school. The research questions were the following:

    • How much time is spent practicing oral ability? 
    • What oral activities do teachers use to get pupils to speak English during lessons?
    • How do teachers act to encourage pupils to speak English? 

    The study is based on a qualitative method: open observation. Five teachers were observed on two occasions each. By using this method, it was possible to observe what the teachers were doing and not what they would tell the interviewer that they do. The results were analyzed using theories such as Willingness to communicate (WTC), and concepts such as scaffolding and motivation.

     

    The results showed that the teachers spoke English to the pupils to a different extent, between 8-25 minutes. This was interpreted as the teachers adapting their teaching and speaking time in the target language to the particular class that they taught in. The tasks and the size of the groups in which the pupils worked varied, from working in full class to working in pairs. By having different group sizes, the teachers created a safe environment for the pupils which motivated the them to speak English. The teachers also motivated the pupils to want to and dare to speak English through verbal and non-verbal feedback, such as body language, gestures, smiles, and encouraging nods. They also said, “good job” and “I know you can do this”. Through these actions, the teachers encouraged pupils to speak in the target language, in particular, those who are perceived as introverted and those who may have low self-esteem and motivation.

  • Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    How to Form Creative Learners in Science2019In: New Perspectives in Science Education: 8th edition: Florence, Italy, 21-22 March 2019, Filodiritto Editore , 2019, no 8, p. 98-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative learning involves meaningful learning, ownership of learning, control of learning processes and innovation when new understanding is realised. In order to produce learning situations where creative learning is achieved, teachers have to create trustful atmospheres where students are allowed to think and discuss without critical evaluation of the teacher. It is also important to create practical exercises in which theoretical models are processed and connected to observations. During many years we have tried to develop courses in science with the goal to promote students to become independent learners and explorers out of their own prerequisites. Different methods and designs of teaching have been investigated and the variation of the student’s creative learning was observed. To continue this development, we here are investigating a chemistry course. Chemistry involves considerable amounts of abstract thinking. Further, as many students had bad experiences from school this was a challenge. 17 preservice teacher students were trained by one teacher to become independent and creative in their own learning of chemistry. The course of 10 full days over three weeks included practical activities mixed with discussions in groups followed by discussion with the teacher in order to connect theory with practical exercises. The students wrote short reflections after each week answering the questions: What do you take with you from your own learning processes and/or in meeting other’s learning processes? What surprised and/or amazed you most? The three reflections where analysed by qualitative methods scoring demonstrations of professional development, process thinking and learning processes. Our results showed that students negative to chemistry changed their opinion and enjoyed thinking of phenomena in everyday life with chemical perspectives. All students expressed the importance of practical exercise and group discussions in their own learning. The reflections contained detailed chemical explanations, concepts used properly and were describing their learning processes. They also used their experiences when they discussed how to design teaching situations. Thus, the design of the course promoted creative thinking and deepened their understanding of chemistry.

  • Tobieson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Aesthetic Expression Enhances and Deepens Teacher Students Understanding of Science Subject Matter2018In: New perspectives in science education: 7th edition: Florence, Italy, 22-23 March 2018, Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2018, no 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Courses and modules within undergraduate programs should be developed and implemented in a way that the students experience deepens and contributes growth of knowledge. Therefore, as teachers we must create a variation of different learning possibilities in order to challenge, motivate and enhance the understanding of theories and abstract models in science and their impact on everyday life experience and conditions. Södertörn University has experience of combining aesthetic expression with science in pre-service teacher program for about fifteen years where we have seen the benefits of embodying abstract theories through art for a better understanding of science subject matter. The integration of science and aesthetic forms of expressions is supported by the Swedish curriculum both for preschool and compulsory school. We use an interdisciplinary knowledge based environmental teaching, basing part of the reflection process with a frame in phenomenology and art-based intermodal theory. Intermodal theory coined by professor emeritus Paolo Knill starts with amodal-perception. Perception as “the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses” while observation is described as “the action or process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone” were observe is to “notice or perceive (something) and register it as being significant” [1]. Thus, observation is a more complex action where it is necessary to interpret the gathering of what has been paid attention to by perceiving without judgment and putting it into a coherent context. Here we present integration of Aesthetic learning process with science subject matter in order to enhance and deepen students understanding. This was performed in a ten-week science course with a total of 54 pre-service preschool teacher students. We worked with and created two- and three-dimensional images and kinetic-aesthetic sculptures parting from phenomenon such as friction and gravity, the phases of Venus and the moon, different materials isolation and conductive qualities etc. Nearly two years after completed science-course the students answered a questionnaire demonstrated several perspectives of understanding.

  • Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Professional Experience of Teacher Students Enhances their Understanding of Evolutionary Concepts2018In: New perspectives in science education: 7th edition: Florence, Italy, 22-23 March 2018, Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During more than ten years we have been educating preservice preschool teacher students with early childhood education and at least three years of working experience from preschool. The studies give the students possibilities to use and connect their practical knowledge with theoretical studies in order to become preschool teachers. Large parts are self-studies, individually or in groups, using textbooks, films and other web-based material while they are working in preschool and only have lectures and exercises one day each week at the university campus. On the third semester, a 10 weeks course in science and technology is included. During this they write four reflections about exercises, lectures and theories from campus including how they shall use their knowledge at work. Here the fourth reflection about evolutionary theories is analysed. Instead of lectures or exercises about evolution textbooks, educational films and articles from newspapers were included to be used for reflections, and also gave comments on their student peers. These students showed a high level of professional experience but they were not aware of how to use their experience to understand patterns and phenomena in nature. The written reflections were assessed by using the quality markers 4R´s of Doll’s (Relations, Recursion, Richness and Rigor). The assessment was focused on use of evolutionary theories and if they gave comments on their experience working with children. The results show that many students used the theories correctly. Many also related to important issues that should be brought up in preschool. In general, the students used their previous experiences in order to construct their own, reasonable, views of the theory of evolution.

  • Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Surrealistic Perspectives Useful in Science Education.2018In: New perspectives in science education: 7th edition: Florence, Italy, 22-23 March, 2018, Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was induced by the observation of how children, about 6 years old, at the Magritte Museum in Brussels were introduced to the idea that the depiction of an object always differ from the object itself. They looked at a painting and discussed how facial expressions in general only partly reveal the character of a person. It clearly demonstrated how the children understood that no matter how naturalistically we depict an object, we never do catch the item itself. The picture helped them with assistance of a supervisor to create this view.Many students are trained in trying to understand what the teacher wants to hear rather than to understand the principles of the theories taught. In science, and most other subjects in school, this results in a knowledge concept based on the quality in the reproduction of texts, formulas, or drawings and the use of important words for concepts in relation to the original presentations. Instead, teaching should result in useful skills based on the understanding of the theories taught.Methods used in presentations of art work at galleries and museums could also be used when science is taught and learned at science museums and in the classrooms. The discrepancy between the representation and reality open up new fields of interpretations which can be used by the teacher to create curiosity. Whatever is demonstrated for students they should be induced to discuss how this should be interpreted and to construct the reality behind instead of trying to remember the representation itself.As the creation of understanding appears in the mind of the student the teacher has to create situations stimulating the wish to understand the reality behind the object instead of the wish to reproduce the mind of the teacher. Here we give some examples of how this method could be used in science education but also how it can be used when assessing the results of teaching.

  • Tobieson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Science integrated with aesthetic expression for better understanding of science subject matter2019In: Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2017 Conference: Research, practice and collaboration in science education / [ed] Odilla Finlayson, Eilish McLoughlin, Sibel Erduran & Peter Childs, Dublin, Ireland: Dublin City University , 2019, no 3, p. 542-554Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers have to create a variation of learning situations to increase the understanding for theories andabstract models in science. We have experiences of combining aesthetic expression with science in pre-serviceteacher programme for more than ten years and have seen the benefits of embodying abstract theories withdance, art, music or drama and better understanding of science subject matter. The integration of science andaesthetic forms of expressions have support in the Swedish curriculum both for preschool and the compulsoryschool and it is therefore important to include exercises using aesthetic expression in the teacher educationprogram. The purpose of the workshop was to give examples of how art can be used to study phenomena inscience. The workshop was divided into three parts. In the first part the participants were doing differentexercises embodying concepts in physics and creating relations with each other. In the second part theparticipants in groups constructed a kinetic mobile. In the third part, the participants reflected and discussedtheir experience and understanding of phenomena during the workshop. Examples of assessments of theconstruction process were presented. Here we also present the planning and theoretical background to thework with aesthetic expression of science.

  • Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Development of observation skills in science education for enhanced understanding2018In: Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2017 Conference: Research, Practice and Collaboration in Science Education / [ed] Odilla Finlayson, Eilish McLoughlin, Sibel Erduran & Peter Childs, Dublin, Ireland: Dublin City University , 2018, p. 2086-2094Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation is a skill necessary for the development of knowledge in science and is used,e.g., in studies to notice patterns and connections between abiotic and biotic factors, or inlaboratory experiments where detailed observations are necessary to achieve understanding.Observation does not only include viewing details but also hearing, smelling and tasting toget all available information from the senses. How students perceive the information dependson their previous personal experiences. It is therefore essential for students to practice theability to observe and to understand the contextual importance for learning. Here we presenta study where 55 pre-service preschool teacher students attended a science course for 10weeks with a variety of exercises. Late in the course they visited a Natural History Museum, agreenhouse with plants adapted to Mediterranean climate conditions and an art museum.Evaluation of written reflections after the visits were done by using the quality marker 4R’sof Doll’s (Relations, Recursion, Richness and Rigor) for the Natural History Museum and thegreenhouse and Roland Barthes concepts studium and punctum for the art museum. Ourresults showed that the students described their experiences from the visits in a personal waywith high quality. The variation of activities was important for the students’ ability to observeand to understand how to design pedagogic activities for children in preschool.

  • Åberg, Dagny
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Den som leker med elden kan bli bränd: Rimlighetsbedömning i årskurserna 1 och 32019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the theoretical meaning of plausibility in mathematics from a teacher’s perspective. The study applies a phenomenographic research approach and uses empirical content analysis. The theory used comes from the writings on plausibility assessment from McIntosh (2008). Furthermore, Karlsson & Kilborn’s (2015) and Kilpatrick, Swafford & Findell’s (2001) writings on mathematical modeling has been applied. The data gathered in this study comes from interviewing 6 teachers. The results show that teachers in the study do not work explicitly but rather work implicitly with assessment in plausibility as a complement to their general teaching of mathematics. The results further show that the teachers have the mathematical knowledge and competence to educate in plausibility but that they lack the theoretical- and didactic knowledge to apply it in their teaching. There is also very little research, if any, in this area which is a concern for the development of teaching plausibility assessment.

  • Daregård Thörnqvist, Adam
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Interpretation of game sounds with personal experience and auditory literacy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns differences between two different generations of people, the younger generation born the year 2000, compared with the older generation born from the 1960s. This study compares these two groups in how they interpret sounds in video games and their affective response to them.  27 participants were gathered for the experiments and did tests in their respective group. They were asked to listen to the sounds, without discussion with each other, instead, they had to rely on their own individual personal experience from video games to answer the questions. After the sounds had been played, a discussion was held with the participants about their previous experience with video games.   The sounds used in the experiments were made from a game sound design perspective and guidelines.

  • Temo, Sumbu
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Broadcasting Peace In CôTe D’Ivoire: What Happens After Democracy?: A case study of Côte d’Ivoire’s UN radio- ONUCI FM2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research will analyze the radio station ONUCI FM, UN’s peace radio in Côte d’Ivoire. The central focus is on journalists’ perception of their role as professional advocacy for peace and democracy. Personal interviews with five ONUCI FM-journalists provide the primary source of qualitative source. In light of the Security Council’s decision to end UN’s peacekeeping mission in Côte d’Ivoire in 2017 followed an uncertainty of ONUCI FM’s future before it was decided that the station would continue to broadcast under the Felix Houphouët-Boigny foundation. This research attempts to elucidate the consequences in similar previous cases. This research shows that the UN often lacks a long-term plan of how to handle their stations when their mission ends, thereby creating an indisputable journalistic vacuum where they previously operated. This research shows that few UN radios are capable of surviving without donations but that leaving abruptly may cause harm to the achieved peace. With the intention to provide a solution to the vacuum created after the UN this research explores the possibilities of citizen journalists filling the void after the organization’s withdrawal. This research argues that Citizen Journalism is a suitable substitute to Peace Journalism when UN radio stations stop broadcasting. Applied theories are Peace Journalism, Journalism ethics and Citizen Journalism. All theories are applicable in the analysis of journalists as nation builders, government partners, and agents of empowerment and also as watchdogs. In conclusion, the purpose of this research is to understand the journalist's own experience of working at ONUCI FM and to analyze if a radio station such as ONUCI FM, when no longer supported by the UN, can benefit of Citizen Journalism.

  • Kollberg, Annika
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Existentiella Möten: Att bemöta barns existentiella frågor och upplevelser på förskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essey consists of four narratives about my own dilemma concerning responding to childrens existential questions in the pre-school context. This is followed by a field- study exploring other pedagogues responses to childrens existential questions. The experiences in the narratives and the field-study is analysed through exisntialfilosofical theories and Swedish and international reserach. The essay reflects on how childrens existential questions can be expressed in pre-school. Predjudices and lack of knowledge concerning how they can express themselves as well as a conflict between a scientific/religious perspektive can make existential questions hard to notice. This conflict could be solved by understanding how children can experience scientific issues in a existential way as well as viewing religious language as symbolic. Another reason for not noticing existential questions can be lack of language and concepts due to the west being in a secular/post religious era. The concept ”signature spirituality” is a possible way to understand childrens individual way to express the existential. The praxis/practice in pre-school is, according to the essay, influenced by a scientific discourse in which explanations is sought. An alterantive discourse is the hermeneutical/phenomenological wherein one instead seek to understand. Fronesis – practical wisdom and techne – productive practicality are important competences when responding to childrens existential questions. Lack of forum for and lack of established praxis for reflection makes working with and developing childrens existential questions a problem. Lack of concepts and language to express the existential is also a problem in this. To have an ethical reflection is especially important with this subject.  But you can still have opportunities to reflect on your own views when confronting the childrens questions. Two different approaches to existential questions in pre-school are highlighted: as a meeting which is valuable in itself and as a cognitive learning process. In Gadamers view a meeting is a conversation or a play about a topic where the persons involved can develop and unite their perspectives. Accordning to Martin Buber the existential or spiritual can be seen as a relationship that needs to respected as such. But taking a cognitve learning perspective on childrens existential questions have many advantages, such as making it easier to work with and respond to childrens existential questions and experiences, whitin the frame of pre-school discourse.